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  • Child
  • Humans
  • Animals
  • Mice
  • Aged
  • Schizophrenia
  • Chromosome Deletion
  • Developmental Disabilities
  • Neocortex
  • Intellectual Disability

Cross-species analysis identifies mitochondrial dysregulation as a functional consequence of the schizophrenia-associated 3q29 deletion

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Journal Title:

Science Advances


Volume 9, Number 33


, Pages eadh0558-eadh0558

Type of Work:



The 1.6-megabase deletion at chromosome 3q29 (3q29Del) is the strongest identified genetic risk factor for schizophrenia, but the effects of this variant on neurodevelopment are not well understood. We interrogated the developing neural transcriptome in two experimental model systems with complementary advantages: isogenic human cortical organoids and isocortex from the 3q29Del mouse model.We profiled transcriptomes from isogenic cortical organoids that were aged for 2 and 12 months, as well as perinatal mouse isocortex, all at single-cell resolution. Systematic pathway analysis implicated dysregulation of mitochondrial function and energy metabolism. These molecular signatures were supported by analysis of oxidative phosphorylation protein complex expression in mouse brain and assays of mitochondrial function in engineered cell lines, which revealed a lack of metabolic flexibility and a contribution of the 3q29 gene PAK2. Together, these data indicate that metabolic disruption is associated with 3q29Del and is conserved across species.
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