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Author Notes:

Sadaf Fakhra, DO, Department of Medicine, University of Nevada, Las Vegas-Kirk Kerkorian School of Medicine, 1707 W Charleston BLVD Suite 100, Las Vegas, NV 89138. Email: sadaf.fakhra@unlv.edu

Christoph W. Sossou: Conceptualization, Methodology, Data curation, Writing- Original draft preparation Sadaf Fakhra, DO: Data curation, Investigation, Writing, Reviewing and Editing Kavita Batra, PhD: Data curation Brice Nouthe, MD: Writing, Reviewing and Editing Alexis Okoh, MD: Writing, Reviewing and Editing Tasha-Phillips-Wilson, BS: Methodology, Writing Carolyne Kuria, MD: Methodology, Writing Dalia Hawwass, MD: Conceptualization, Reviewing, final edits, supervision of the project Modele O Ogunniyi, MD: Conceptualization, Reviewing, final edits, supervision of project Aditi Singh, MD: Conceptualization, Reviewing, final edits, supervision of the project Marc Cohen, MD: final edits, supervision of the project Buddhadeb Dawn, MD: supervision of the project Chowdhury H. Ahsan, MD: Conceptualization, Reviewing, final edits, supervision of the project

There are no competing interests or conflicts of interests to declare.



  • Science & Technology
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Cardiac & Cardiovascular Systems
  • Cardiovascular System & Cardiology
  • CARE

Diversity in US Cardiovascular Trainees and Leadership Where we are and What the Future Holds

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Journal Title:



Volume 48, Number 3


, Pages 101518-101518

Type of Work:

Article | Post-print: After Peer Review


Cardiovascular (CV) outcomes can be improved with commonality between provider and patient regarding gender and race/ethnicity. Slow growth in CV care provider diversity is an obstacle for women and underrepresented groups. The hope for more equitable outcomes is unlikely to be realized unless trends change in selection of CV fellows and program directors (PDs). We investigate longitudinal trends of gender and racial/ethnic composition of CV FITs. De-identified demographic data were compiled in a descriptive cross-sectional study from AAMC of internal medicine (IM) residents and CV FITs from 2011 through 2021 to evaluate gender and race/ethnicity trends among CV trainees. Trends of CV fellows who later became program directors were analyzed. In the US between 2011 and 2021, 53% of IM residents were male while 40% female (7% unreported). Among CV FITs, 78% were male and 21% female. Races/ethnicities among CV FITs consisted of 36% non-Hispanic white, 28% non-Hispanic Asian, 5% Hispanic, 4%Black, and 25% were classified within other race/ethnicity categories. The proportion who became CV program directors followed similarly: 79% of PDs were male and 21% female. Demographic profiles for CV FITs have not significantly changed over the past decade despite increased diversity among IM residents. Efforts to improve diversity of CV FITs and PDs need to be analyzed. Slow growth of diversity in CV FITs is outpaced by rising patient diversity, leading to disparities in care and poorer CV outcomes for women and underrepresented minorities. Recruiting, training, and retaining diverse CV FITs is necessary.

Copyright information:

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
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