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  • Science & Technology
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neurosciences
  • Neurosciences & Neurology
  • Corticocortical evoked potentials
  • Single pulse electrical stimulation
  • Stereoelectroencephalography
  • Laplacian montage
  • Brain connectivity
  • EEG

The Referential Montage Inadequately Localizes Corticocortical Evoked Potentials in Stereoelectroencephalography


Journal Title:



Volume 39, Number 5


, Pages 412-418

Type of Work:



Purpose:Corticocortical evoked potentials (CCEPs) resulting from single pulse electrical stimulation are increasingly used to understand seizure networks, as well as normal brain connectivity. However, we observed that when using depth electrodes, traditional measures of CCEPs amplitude using a referential montage can be falsely localizing, often to white matter.Methods:We pooled 27 linear electrode arrays targeting the amygdala, hippocampus, or cingulate cortex from eight participants. Using postoperative imaging, we classified contacts as being in gray matter, white matter, or bordering each and measured the amplitude using the root-mean-squared deviation from baseline in a referential, common average, bipolar, or Laplacian montage.Results:Of 27 electrode contacts, 25 (93%) had a significantly higher mean amplitude when in gray matter than in white matter using a Laplacian montage, which was significantly more than the 12 of 27 electrodes (44%) when using a referential montage (P = 0.0003, Fisher exact test). The area under the curve for a receiver operating characteristic classifying contacts as gray or white matter was significantly higher for either the Laplacian (0.79) or the bipolar (0.72) montage when compared with either the common average (0.56) or the referential (0.51) montage (P ≤ 0.005, bootstrap).Conclusions:Both the Laplacian and bipolar montages were superior to the common average or referential montage in localizing CCEPs to gray matter. These montages may be more appropriate for interpreting CCEPs when using depth electrodes than the referential montage, which has typically been used in prior studies of CCEPs with subdural grids.
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