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Author Notes:

ulie A. Kable, Ph.D., 12 Executive Park, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30329, Phone # 404-712-9833, FAX # 404-712-9809. Email: jkabl01@emory.edu

JA Kable: Dr. Kable developed the protocol, analyzed the results, and was the primary author of the manuscript. CD Coles: Dr. Coles developed other portions of the Ukrainian preschool assessment, provided consultation regarding the analysis, and was involved in reviewing and editing several drafts of the manuscript. CL Keen: Dr. Keen supervised the methods related to the analysis of choline and its metabolites. Dr. Keen also reviewed and edited the manuscript. JY Uriu-Adams: Dr. Uriu -Adams completed the analysis of choline and its metabolites. She also reviewed and edited the manuscript. KL Jones: Dr Jones is one of the investigators in the Ukrainian project who helped design the assessment protocol. Dr. Jones reviewed and edited the manuscript. L Yevtushok: Dr. Yevtushok is one of the primary site supervisors in the Ukraine who was responsible for supervising the recruitment and data collection related to the aims of the study that are reflected in the manuscript. Dr. Yevtushok reviewed and edited the manuscript. Y Kulikovsky: Dr. Kulikovsky was involved in data collection and has reviewed and edited the manuscript. N. Zymak-Zakutnya: Dr. Zymak-Zakutnya is one of the primary site supervisors in the Ukraine who was responsible for supervising the recruitment and data collection related to the aims of the study that are reflected in the manuscript. Dr. Zymak-Zakutnya reviewed and edited the manuscript. Iryna Dubchak, Ms. Dubchak was involved in data collection and has reviewed and edited the manuscript. D Akhmedzhanova: Ms. Akhmedzhanova was involved in supervising and conducting activities related to recruitment, data collection, and transmission. Ms. Akhmedzhanova reviewed and edited the manuscript. W Wertelecki: Dr. Wertelecki directs the OMNI-Net Ukraine Birth Defects Program that provides administrative oversite of project in the Ukraine. Dr. Wertelecki reviewed and edited the manuscript. CD Chambers: Dr. Chambers is the principal investigator of the project and is involved in coordinating the activities needed to carry out the aims of the project. She has provided supervision and oversite of data collection, encoding, and sharing among investigators. Dr. Chambers reviewed and edited the manuscript. the CIFASD : All or part of this work was done in conjunction with the Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (CIFASD), which is funded by grants from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). Additional information about CIFASD can be found at www.cifasd.org.

The authors would also like to thank Dr. John Newman, Dr. Theresa Pedersen, Dr. Heidrun Gross, Jodi Ensunsa, and Ashley Villalon for technical help with the mass spectrometry analysis. Finally, the authors would like to thank the Ukrainian families who participated in this research and the wonderful staff of the Rivne Regional Medical Diagnostic Center, Khmelnytsky Perinatal Center and the OMNI-Net Ukraine Birth Defects Program.

The authors have no competing interests to declare.

Subjects:

Research Funding:

This research was funded by supported by NIH Research Grants #U01AA014835 funded by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS)-Christina Chambers, PI. All or part of this work was done in conjunction with the Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (CIFASD), which is funded by grants from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). Additional information about CIFASD can be found at www.cifasd.org.

Keywords:

  • Science & Technology
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Substance Abuse
  • Pharmacology & Pharmacy
  • Toxicology
  • attention
  • choline
  • micronutrient supplementation
  • prenatal alcohol
  • reaction time
  • SPECTRUM DISORDERS
  • CHOLINE SUPPLEMENTATION
  • ATTENTION-DEFICIT
  • DOUBLE-BLIND
  • SUSTAINED ATTENTION
  • PRENATAL CHOLINE
  • SEX-DIFFERENCES
  • CHILDREN
  • NUTRITION
  • VIGILANCE

The impact of micronutrient supplementation in alcohol-exposed pregnancies on reaction time responses of preschoolers in Ukraine

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Tools:

Journal Title:

ALCOHOL

Volume:

Volume 99

Publisher:

, Pages 49-58

Type of Work:

Article | Post-print: After Peer Review

Abstract:

The potential of micronutrients to ameliorate the impact of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on attentional regulation skills was explored in a randomized clinical trial conducted in Ukraine. Women who differed in prenatal alcohol use were recruited during pregnancy and assigned to one of three groups [No study-provided supplements, Multivitamin/Mineral Supplement (MVM), or MVM plus Choline]. Their offspring were seen in the preschool period and a reaction time task was administered. Participants were asked to press a response button as quickly as possible as 30 stimuli from the same category (animals) were presented consecutively and then followed by six stimuli from a novel category (vehicles). Number correct, mean latency of the response over trials, and variability in the latency were analyzed separately by sex. During the initial animal trials, boys whose mothers received MVM during pregnancy had more correct responses and reduced response latency compared to boys whose mothers had no MVM treatment. During vehicle trials, maternal choline supplementation was associated with increased response speed in males without a PAE history. Females receiving supplements did not show the same benefits from micronutrient supplementation and were more adversely impacted by prenatal alcohol exposure. Relationships between maternal levels of choline, betaine, and dimethylglycine (DMG) and task performance were also assessed. Although no effects were found for choline after adjusting for multiple comparisons, lower baseline DMG level was associated with greater accuracy and shorter latency of responses in the initial animal trials and shorter latency in the vehicle trials in female preschoolers. Level of betaine in Trimester 3 was associated with reduced variability in the latency of male responses during the animal trials. Maternal micronutrient supplementation in pregnancy appears to improve preschool reaction time performance, but the effects varied as a function of sex and PAE exposure status.

Copyright information:

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
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