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Author Notes:

Tuoyo O Mene-Afejuku, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic Health System, 1025 Marsh St, Mankato, MN 56001, USA; E-mail: tuoyoleads2000@yahoo.co.uk

The authors declare no conflict of interest, financial or otherwise.


Research Funding:



  • Device therapy
  • heart failure
  • mortality
  • outcomes
  • seniors
  • ventricular arrhythmias
  • Arrhythmias, Cardiac
  • Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy
  • Defibrillators, Implantable
  • Heart Failure
  • Humans
  • Stroke Volume

Ventricular Arrhythmias in Seniors with Heart Failure: Present Dilemmas and Therapeutic Considerations: A Systematic Review


Journal Title:

Current Cardiology Reviews


Volume 18, Number 2


, Pages 78-90

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Background: Heart Failure (HF) is a global public health problem, which affects over 23 million people worldwide. The prevalence of HF is higher among seniors in the USA and other developed countries. Ventricular Arrhythmias (VAs) account for 50% of deaths among patients with HF. We aim to elucidate the factors associated with VAs among seniors with HF, as well as therapies that may improve the outcomes. Methods: PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane Library databases, Science Direct, and Google Scholar were searched using specific keywords. The reference lists of relevant articles were searched for additional studies related to HF and VAs among seniors as well as associated out-comes. Results: The prevalence of VAs increases with worsening HF. A 24-hour Holter electrocardiogram may be useful in risk stratifying patients for device therapy if they do not meet the criterion of low ventricular ejection fraction. Implantable Cardiac Defibrillators (ICDs) are superior to anti-arrhythmic drugs in reducing mortality in patients with HF. Guideline-Directed Medical Therapy (GDMT) together with device therapy may be required to reduce symptoms. In general, the proportion of seniors on GDMT is low. A combination of ICDs and cardiac resynchronization therapy may improve outcomes in selected patients. Conclusion: Seniors with HF and VAs have high mortality even with the use of device therapy and GDMT. The holistic effect of device therapy on outcomes among seniors with HF is equivocal. More studies focused on seniors with advanced HF as well as therapeutic options are, there-fore, required.

Copyright information:

© 2022 Bentham Science Publishers

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/).
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