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Author Notes:

Wendy Landier, Email: wclandier@uabmc.edu

Conception and Design: WL, JLK, SB, JSR, MBG, GAC; Funding acquisition: WL, JLK; Methodology: WL, JLK, JSR, SB, MBG, GAC, VC, JA, SMC, MMG, SL, TBR, LMT, BC, PDCG; Writing – original draft: WL, JLK, JSR, SB; Writing – review and editing: WL, JLK, JSR, SB, BC, PDCG, VC, JA, SMC, MBG, GAC, MMG, SL, TBR, LMT. The authors read and approved the final manuscript.

The authors declare no competing interests.


Research Funding:

This research is funded by a cooperative agreement from the National Cancer Institute; www.cancer.gov (U01CA246567; PIs WL and JLK). The contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not represent official views of, nor endorsement, by the National Cancer Institute or other federal agencies.


  • Science & Technology
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Pediatrics
  • Human papillomavirus
  • Vaccination rates
  • Childhood cancer survivors
  • Cluster-randomized trial
  • RISK

Implementation of a provider-focused intervention for maximizing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake in young cancer survivors receiving follow-up care in pediatric oncology practices: protocol for a cluster-randomized trial of the HPV PROTECT intervention

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Journal Title:



Volume 22, Number 1


, Pages 541-541

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Background: Childhood cancer survivors are at high risk for developing new cancers (such as cervical and anal cancer) caused by persistent infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV vaccination is effective in preventing the infections that lead to these cancers, but HPV vaccine uptake is low among young cancer survivors. Lack of a healthcare provider recommendation is the most common reason that cancer survivors fail to initiate the HPV vaccine. Strategies that are most successful in increasing HPV vaccine uptake in the general population focus on enhancing healthcare provider skills to effectively recommend the vaccine, and reducing barriers faced by the young people and their parents in receiving the vaccine. This study will evaluate the effectiveness and implementation of an evidence-based healthcare provider-focused intervention (HPV PROTECT) adapted for use in pediatric oncology clinics, to increase HPV vaccine uptake among cancer survivors 9 to 17 years of age. Methods: This study uses a hybrid type 1 effectiveness-implementation approach. We will test the effectiveness of the HPV PROTECT intervention using a stepped-wedge cluster-randomized trial across a multi-state sample of pediatric oncology clinics. We will evaluate implementation (provider perspectives regarding intervention feasibility, acceptability and appropriateness in the pediatric oncology setting, provider fidelity to intervention components and change in provider HPV vaccine-related knowledge and practices [e.g., providing vaccine recommendations, identifying and reducing barriers to vaccination]) using a mixed methods approach. Discussion: This multisite trial will address important gaps in knowledge relevant to the prevention of HPV-related malignancies in young cancer survivors by testing the effectiveness of an evidence-based provider-directed intervention, adapted for the pediatric oncology setting, to increase HPV vaccine initiation in young cancer survivors receiving care in pediatric oncology clinics, and by procuring information regarding intervention delivery to inform future implementation efforts. If proven effective, HPV PROTECT will be readily disseminable for testing in the larger pediatric oncology community to increase HPV vaccine uptake in cancer survivors, facilitating protection against HPV-related morbidities for this vulnerable population. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04469569, prospectively registered on July 14, 2020.

Copyright information:

© The Author(s) 2022

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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