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Author Notes:

Constantinos S. Kyriakis, csk@auburn.edu

Ioanna Skountzou, iskount@emory.edu

VP, ZM, IS and CK designed the research. VP, ZM, VA, JY, PN, JN, DW and CK performed research. JY and KH performed histopathological analyses. MN performed BL cytology analyses. JJ performed ELISpot analyses, VP, ZM, IS and CK wrote the paper. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version.

The authors would like to thank Sheniqua Glover for laboratory technical assistance and Brian Anderson, manager of the Auburn University Swine Research and Education Center (SREC), for assistance with animal work. Finally, we would like to thank Dr. Micah Jansen, US Pork Technical Services at Zoetis, for providing additional information about the H3N2 strains included in FluSure XP®.

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.


Research Funding:

This work was funded by the NIH/NIAID Centers of Excellence for Influenza Research and Surveillance (CEIRS) contract HHSN272201400004C and the Auburn University Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station (AAES).

Virginia Aida is funded through the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service’s (APHIS) National Bio and Agro-Defense Facility Scientist Training Program.


  • Science & Technology
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Immunology
  • neuraminidase
  • influenza A virus
  • virus like particles
  • vaccine
  • swine
  • H1N1

A Novel Neuraminidase Virus-Like Particle Vaccine Offers Protection Against Heterologous H3N2 Influenza Virus Infection in the Porcine Model

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Journal Title:



Volume 13


, Pages 915364-915364

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Influenza A viruses (IAVs) pose a global health threat, contributing to hundreds of thousands of deaths and millions of hospitalizations annually. The two major surface glycoproteins of IAVs, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), are important antigens in eliciting neutralizing antibodies and protection against disease. However, NA is generally ignored in the formulation and development of influenza vaccines. In this study, we evaluate the immunogenicity and efficacy against challenge of a novel NA virus-like particles (VLPs) vaccine in the porcine model. We developed an NA2 VLP vaccine containing the NA protein from A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2) and the matrix 1 (M1) protein from A/MI/73/2015, formulated with a water-in-oil-in-water adjuvant. Responses to NA2 VLPs were compared to a commercial adjuvanted quadrivalent whole inactivated virus (QWIV) swine IAV vaccine. Animals were prime boost vaccinated 21 days apart and challenged four weeks later with an H3N2 swine IAV field isolate, A/swine/NC/KH1552516/2016. Pigs vaccinated with the commercial QWIV vaccine demonstrated high hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titers but very weak anti-NA antibody titers and subsequently undetectable NA inhibition (NAI) titers. Conversely, NA2 VLP vaccinated pigs demonstrated undetectable HAI titers but high anti-NA antibody titers and NAI titers. Post-challenge, NA2 VLPs and the commercial QWIV vaccine showed similar reductions in virus replication, pulmonary neutrophilic infiltration, and lung inflammation compared to unvaccinated controls. These data suggest that anti-NA immunity following NA2 VLP vaccination offers comparable protection to QWIV swine IAV vaccines inducing primarily anti-HA responses.

Copyright information:

© 2022 Pliasas, Menne, Aida, Yin, Naskou, Neasham, North, Wilson, Horzmann, Jacob, Skountzou and Kyriakis

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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