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Author Notes:

Email: af544@cornell.edu. Phone: +1 603-630-0948. Fax: +1 607-254-6225.

The authors would like to thank Dr. Yaw Addo, Dr. Penelope Howards, Dr. Katarzyna Kordas, Ms. Sayda Pico, Ms. Sarah Zimmerman, Dr. Melanie Jacobson and Dr. Jennifer Richards for their help with this manuscript.

Disclosures: None


Research Funding:

Funding for this research was provided solely by way of salary support.

Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institutes of Health under award 5 T32 HD087137 (Amy Fothergill).

Helena Pachón’s time was supported by an agreement between the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), McKing Consulting Corporation, and Emory University.


  • Ferritin
  • effectiveness
  • enrichment
  • evaluation
  • fortification
  • hemoglobin
  • wheat flour

Consumption of Fortified Wheat Flour and Associations with Anemia and Low Serum Ferritin in Colombia.


Journal Title:

Perspect Nutr Hum


Volume 21, Number 2


, Pages 159-171

Type of Work:

Article | Post-print: After Peer Review


BACKGROUND: Colombia's mandatory wheat flour fortification program has yet to be evaluated. OBJECTIVE: Examine associations between consumption of fortified wheat flour and low serum ferritin (LSF) and anemia prevalence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A secondary analysis of the 2005 national nutrition survey (ENSIN) was completed for 3988 children 2-4 y, 5669 children 5-12 y and 2053 non-pregnant women 13-49 y. The relationship between consumption (quartiles) of wheat flour containing food (WFCF) and LSF and anemia was examined using chi-square analyses and logistic regression models. RESULTS: In unadjusted analyses, the prevalence of LSF was similar across all quartiles of WFCF consumption in all age groups. The highest prevalence of anemia was observed in the lowest WFCF consumption quartiles in all age groups, but was not significantly different in non-pregnant women 13-49 y. In adjusted models this relationship between WFCF and anemia remained for children 2-4 y when comparing the highest WFCF intake quartile with the lowest quartile (OR: 0.7, 95 % Cl: 0.6-0.9). No association between WFCF and LSF was observed in adjusted (or unadjusted) models. CONCLUSIONS: In Colombia, consumption of wheat flour containing foods is associated with lower levels of anemia in pre-school children.

Copyright information:

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/rdf).
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