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Author Notes:

Dr. Purvi Parwani, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Loma Linda University Medical Center, 11234 Anderson Street, Room 4404, Loma Linda, California 42402, USA. Email: pparwani@llu.edu

Dr. Lundberg has served as social media consultant for JACC: Case Reports. Dr. Parwani has served as a Guest Editor for JACC: Case Reports. Dr. Volgman has received research support from MSD/Bayer Virtual Global Advisory Board Member, Bristol Myers Squibb Foundation Diverse Clinical Investigator Career Development Program (DCICDP), Novo Nordisk Virtual Advisory Board on Healthcare Disparities, Novartis Clinical Trial, NIH Clinical Trials, and Apple Inc. stock. All other authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.



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Sexual Harassment, Victim Blaming, and the Potential Impact on Women in Cardiology


Journal Title:

JACC: Case Reports


Volume 3, Number 6


, Pages 978-981

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Sexual harassment is a global issue. It is widespread among age groups, races, genders, cultures, political beliefs, religions, and diverse workplaces. After a thorough review of the social scientific and legal literature, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM) defined sexual harassment as involving 3 components: gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, and sexual coercion (2). Gender harassment is the most common type of sexual harassment. It refers to a broad range of verbal and nonverbal behaviors that convey hostility, objectification, exclusion, and degrading attitude towards members of 1 gender. Unwanted sexual attention entails unwelcome verbal or physical sexual advances without any professional rewards. Sexual coercion entails sexual advances with status or employment benefits conditioned on sexual favors (2). A meta-analysis focusing on sexual harassment in the workplace has shown that the prevalence of sexual harassment in U.S. academia is 58%, second only to the military at 69%, and outpaces that of government and industry settings (3). The prevalence of sexual harassment in academic medicine is almost double that of other science and engineering specialties, with nearly one-half of all trainees at surveyed institutions reporting harassment from faculty or staff (2).

Copyright information:

© 2021 Published by Elsevier on behalf of the American College of Cardiology Foundation.

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/rdf).
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