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Author Notes:

Christian Mustroph, cmustro@emory.edu

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.



  • csf diversion
  • csf diversion procedures
  • hydrocephalus
  • ventriculoatrial shunt
  • ventriculoperitoneal shunt

Open Retroperitoneal Inferior Vena Cava Cannulation for Distal Ventriculoatrial Shunt Catheter Placement.


Journal Title:



Volume 14, Number 1


, Pages e21555-e21555

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Multiple alternative sites for distal ventriculoperitoneal shunts have been described including pleural, atrial, ureteral, fallopian, and gallbladder placement. In medically complex patients the sites for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion can be exhausted. We present a case where open retroperitoneal inferior vena cava cannulation was used for successful atrial catheter placement in a 17-month-old female. The patient had a complex abdominal, pulmonary, and vascular history precluding placement of the distal catheter in other sites or atrial placement through more peripheral venous cannulation. The patient underwent uncomplicated open retroperitoneal exposure of her inferior vena cava (IVC) with cannulation and placement of atrial catheter under fluoroscopic guidance. At the follow-up one year after surgery, the patient did not require revision with appropriate placement of the distal atrial catheter.

Copyright information:

© 2022, Mustroph et al.

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/rdf).
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