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Author Notes:

H. Kloefkorn, hkloefk@emory.edu

The authors declare the following financial interests/personal relationships which may be considered as potential competing interests: HK and SH are co-inventors of US patent application 16/095,906, filed 10/23/2018, that includes use of EF sensor methodology for non-contact physio-behavioral monitoring of movements including respiration. NPP is a member of the scientific advisory board for Dixie Medical USA (unrelated to this work). LA has no disclosures.


Research Funding:

This work was supported by grants from the Craig H. Nielsen Foundation (to SH) and the NIH (K08NS105929 to NPP and 5k12-Gm000680 to HK).


  • Electric field sensor
  • Noninvasive
  • Rodent
  • Sleep scoring

Scoring sleep using respiration and movement-based features

Journal Title:



Volume 9


, Pages 101682-101682

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Rules derived from standard Rechtschaffen and Kales criteria were developed to accurately score rodent sleep into wake, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and non-REM sleep using movements detected by non-contact electric field (EF) sensors. • Using this method, rodent sleep can be scored using only respiratory and gross body movements as a validated, non-invasive alternative to electrode techniques. • The methodology and rules established for EF sensor-based sleep scoring were easily learned and implemented. • Examples of expert-scored files are included here to help novice scorers self-train to score sleep. Though validated in mice, sleep scoring using respiratory movements has the potential for application in other species and through other movement-based technologies beyond EF sensors.

Copyright information:

© 2022 Published by Elsevier B.V.

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/rdf).
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