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Author Notes:

Telisa A. Spikes, Emory University, Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing, 1520 Clifton Rd. Office 428, Atlanta, GA 30322, United States of America. Email: tspikes@emory.edu

Telisa Spikes and Ijeoma Isiadinso: Conceptualization, Writing-Original draft preparation and editing, Methodology, Data analysis, Statistical software; Puja K. Mehta & Sandra B. Dunbar: Writing-Reviewing and Editing; Gina P. Lundberg: Supervision.

The authors wish to thank the participants of the 10,000 women HTN screening project, clinical and non-clinical study volunteers.

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.


Research Funding:

T. Spikes effort for this work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [T32HL130025, 2021] NHLBI training grant.


  • African American women
  • Blood pressure screenings
  • Hypertension
  • Socioeconomic status

Socioeconomic characteristics of African American women attending community blood pressure screenings.


Journal Title:

Am Heart J Plus


Volume 13


Type of Work:

Article | Post-print: After Peer Review


Study objective: To examine the associations of education and income and blood pressure (BP) in a socioeconomically diverse cohort of African-American (AA) women attending community BP screenings. Design setting and participants: This cross-sectional analysis used data from AA women (n = 972) 53 ± 14 years, enrolled between 2015 and 2019 in the 10,000-women hypertension community screening project in the metropolitan Atlanta area. OLS linear regression were used to examine the associations between SES (education and income) and BP after adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), smoking, and lipids. Main outcomes and measures: Outcomes were systolic and diastolic BP (SBP, DBP). Measures of SES included education [high school ≤(HS), some college, and ≥college] and income-[<$24,000, $24,000-<$48,000, $48,000-$96,000, and ≥$96,000]. Sociodemographics, health history, anthropometrics and point of care non-fasting lipids were obtained. Results: Compared to women earning <$24,000, an income of ≥$96,000 (β = -5.7 mmHg, 95% CI: -9.9, -1.5, p = .01) was associated with a lower SBP in the minimally adjusted model. Subsequent adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors attenuated the association and was no longer significant. College and above versus ≤HS education was associated with a higher DBP in the minimally (ß = 2.7 mmHg, 95% CI: 0.2, 5.2, p = .03) and fully adjusted models (ß = 3.4 mmHg, 95% CI: 0.2, 6.5, p = .04). Conclusion: Income of ≥$96,000 was associated with a lower SBP while a college and above education was associated with a higher DBP. Findings underscore the need for increased cardiovascular risk awareness and education targeting higher SES AA women attending community BP screenings.

Copyright information:

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/rdf).
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