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Author Notes:

Helena Pachón, Email: helena.pachon@emory.edu

Conceptualization, H.P. and L.C.; protocol development and implementation, B.R.; analysis, B.R. and M.D.; systematization of analytical strategy in software program, M.D.; writing—original draft preparation, B.R. and H.P.; writing—review and editing, L.C., M.D., Y.K., C.L.L., B.L.T., K.C., and F.C.V. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

Co-authors are employed with the Food Fortification Initiative, Emory University, Johns Hopkins University, the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition, and the Iodine Global Network. All these organizations help country leaders promote, plan, implement, monitor, or evaluate food fortification. The funders had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript; or in the decision to publish the results.


Research Funding:

This work was supported by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation [OPP1210398].


  • Science & Technology
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Nutrition & Dietetics
  • enrichment
  • fortification
  • micronutrients
  • condiments
  • dietary reference intakes

The Potential Contribution of Fortified Maize Flour, Oil, Rice, Salt, and Wheat Flour to Estimated Average Requirements and Tolerable Upper Intake Levels for 15 Nutrients in 153 Countries


Journal Title:



Volume 13, Number 2


, Pages 1-14

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Food fortification is designed to improve the nutritional profile of diets. The purpose of this research was to estimate the potential nutrient contribution of fortified maize flour, oil, rice, salt, and wheat flour in 153 countries, using the national intake (or availability) of the food and the nutrient levels required for fortification. This was done under two scenarios—maximum, where 100% of the food is assumed to be industrially processed and fortified, and realistic, where the maximum value is adjusted based on the percent of the food that is industrially processed and fortified. Under the maximum scenario, the median Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) met ranged from 22–75% for 14 nutrients (vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, D, E, folic acid and calcium, fluoride, iron, selenium and zinc), and 338% for iodine. In the realistic scenario, the median EARs met were 181% for iodine and <35% for the other nutrients. In both scenarios, the median Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) met were <55% for all nutrients. Under the realistic scenario, no country ex-ceeded 100% of the UL for any nutrient. Current fortification practices of the five foods of interest have the global potential to contribute up to 15 nutrients to the diets of people, with minimal risk of exceeding ULs.

Copyright information:

© 2021 by the authors.

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/rdf).
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