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Author Notes:

Francesca Storici, Email: storici@gatech.edu

Conceptualization, F.S. and W.M.M.E.; Methodology, W.M.M.E., A.L.G., P.X., T.Y., Y.J., S.B., G.N., S.T., N.E.B, T.B., M.B., Y.C., and F.S.; Investigation, W.M.M.E., A.L.G., P.X., T.Y., Y.J., S.B., and F.S.; Writing – Original Draft F.S.; Writing – Review & Editing W.M.M.E., A.L.G., P.X., T.Y., Y.J., S.B., G.N., M.B., B.K., and F.S.; Funding acquisition, M.B., R.F.S., B.K., and F.S.; Resources, M.B., R.F.S., B.K., Y.C., and F.S. All authors commented on and approved the manuscript.

We thank the Molecular Evolution Core with A. Bryksin at the Parker H. Petit Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience of the Georgia Institute of Technology for high throughput sequencing, M.D. Herron and C. Lindsey for supplemental aliquots of C. reinhardtii CC-1690 cells, J. Choi for bioinformatics support, K. Mukherjee and D. Kundnani for critically reading the manuscript, and all members of the Storici laboratory for assistance and feedback on this study.

We have a patent related to this study: Storici, F., Hesselberth, J.R., and Koh, K. D. Methods to detect ribonucleotides in deoxyribonucleic acids. U.S. Patent U.S. 10,787,703 B1 Sep. 29, 2020.


Research Funding:

We acknowledge funding from the Egyptian Cultural Affairs & Missions Sector, Cairo, Egypt (to W.M.M.E.), R01GM128145 (to M.B), AI136581 (to B.K.), AI150451 (to B.K.), MH116695 (to. R.F.S), the National Institutes of Health (R01ES026243 to F.S.), and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (Faculty Scholar grant 55108574 to F.S.) for supporting this work.


  • Science & Technology
  • Multidisciplinary Sciences
  • Science & Technology - Other Topics
  • ACID

Disproportionate presence of adenosine in mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

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Journal Title:



Volume 24, Number 1


, Pages 102005-102005

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


The presence of ribose sugar in place of deoxyribose in DNA is a common DNA modification due to the abundant incorporation of ribonucleoside monophosphates (rNMPs), which are the units of RNA, by DNA polymerases (Nava et al., 2020; Williams et al., 2016). While it has been known for a long time that rNMPs are present in specific DNA sequences, such as mouse and human mitochondrial DNA (Grossman et al., 1973), at the mating type locus in the nuclear DNA of fission yeast (Vengrova and Dalgaard, 2006) and even in chloroplast DNA (Kolodner et al., 1975), only in the last decade has the ribose in DNA been defined as the most abundant alteration in the DNA of cells (Caldecott, 2014; Cavanaugh et al., 2010; Clausen et al., 2013; Gosavi et al., 2012; Kasiviswanathan and Copeland, 2011; Kennedy et al., 2012; Lemor et al., 2018; McDonald et al., 2012; Nick McElhinny et al., 2010; Potenski and Klein, 2014; Williams and Kunkel, 2014; Williams et al., 2016). Recent studies highlight the capacity of many DNA polymerases to incorporate rNMPs into DNA (Astatke et al., 1998; Bonnin et al., 1999; Brown and Suo, 2011; Cavanaugh et al., 2010; Gong et al., 2005; Kasiviswanathan and Copeland, 2011; Kennedy et al., 2012; McDonald et al., 2012; Nick McElhinny and Ramsden, 2003; Patel and Loeb, 2000).

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© 2021 The Authors.

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/rdf).
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