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Author Notes:

Osama Kashlan


The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.



  • anterior lumbar interbody fusion
  • fusion
  • interbody fusion
  • lumbar spine
  • multilevel fusion

Safety Profile and Radiographic and Clinical Outcomes of Stand-Alone 2-Level Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion: A Case Series of 41 Consecutive Patients.


Journal Title:



Volume 12, Number 11


, Pages e11684-e11684

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


OBJECTIVE: The use of stand-alone 2-level anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) for degenerative lumbar disease has been increasing as an alternative to routinely augmenting these constructs with posterior fixation or fusion. Despite the potential benefits of a stand-alone approach (decreased cost and operative time, decreased pain and early mobilization), there is a paucity of information regarding these operations in the literature. This investigation aimed to determine the safety profile, radiographic outcomes including fusion rates, improvement in preoperative pain, and spinopelvic parameter modification, for patients undergoing stand-alone 2-level ALIF. METHODS: This retrospective case series involved a chart review of all patients undergoing 2-level stand-alone ALIF at a single tertiary hospital from 2008 to 2018. Data included patient demographics, hospitalization, complications and radiological studies. Visual analog scale (VAS) back and leg scores were measured via patient-administered surveys preoperatively and up to 18 weeks postoperatively. RESULTS: Forty-one patients who underwent L4-S1 stand-alone ALIF were included. Sixteen (39%) of patients had undergone previous posterior lumbar surgery. Length of stay averaged 4.2 days. Complication rates were comparable to 1-level ALIF. Two patients required reoperation. Fusion rates were 100% for L4-5 and 94.4% for L5-S1. There was no significant change in lumbar lordosis (LL) or LL-pelvic incidence (PI), but there was improved segmental lordosis (SL) and disc height at L4-S1 on final follow-up imaging. There was also modest but statistically significant improvement in VAS back and leg scores. CONCLUSIONS: Stand-alone 2-level ALIF is an option for a surgeon to perform in the absence of significant instability, even in the setting of prior posterior surgery. These procedures increase SL and disc height, but do not have the same effect on LL or LL-PI.

Copyright information:

© 2020, Kashlan et al.

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/rdf).
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