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Author Notes:

Laura del Hoyo Soriano, Email: ldelhoyo@ucdavis.edu

L.H.S. contributed to the study conception and study design and was responsible for the analysis of the data. L.H.S. and T.W. prepared figures and tables. L.H.S., L.A., S.S., T.R., D.H. and T.W. were responsible for interpretation of the data, as well as drafting and revising the manuscript. T.R. and D.H. were responsible for the collection and quality control of clinical data. All authors critically revised and approved the manuscript.

The authors declare no competing interests.


Research Funding:

This work was funded primarily by the LuMind Research Down Syndrome Foundation. Additional support was provided by NIH grants P50HD103526, P30HD03352, and U54HD090256. We also want to thank the families who participated in this study and the many members of the Down Syndrome Cognition Project (DSCP) who conducted site recruitment and performance-based testing.

This study was approved by the Institutional Review Boards (IRB) of each participating site; Emory University (IRB00005100); University of California, Davis (IRB395392-1); University of Arizona (IRB00001751), Johns Hopkins University (IRB00031164), Oregon Health & Science University (IRB00003602), Children’s National Medical Center (IRB:Pro00002478), University of Wisconsin-Madison (IRB:SE-2010-0016) and University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (IRB#17424).


  • Science & Technology
  • Multidisciplinary Sciences
  • Science & Technology - Other Topics
  • ADHD

Gestational age is related to symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in late-preterm to full-term children and adolescents with down syndrome


Journal Title:



Volume 10, Number 1


, Pages 20345-20345

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is frequently reported in individuals with Down syndrome, with considerable variation in the expression and severity of the symptoms. Despite growing evidence that gestational age predicts later symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the euploid population, this has not been studied in down syndrome. The current study is designed to investigate the influence of gestational age in later symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in 105 individuals (49 males and 56 females; aged 6–18 years) with Down syndrome who were born at or after 35 weeks gestation. Maternal age at birth, maternal level of education, household income, as well as sex, chronological age, and cognitive level of the participant with Down syndrome were considered in our analysis. Results from this study show that gestational age is related to inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms in children and adolescents with Down syndrome. Therefore, gestational age should be addressed when considering symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, as it may have implications for early interventions. More attention is needed toward the advancement of care and follow-up for infants with down syndrome who are born even late preterm or early term.

Copyright information:

© The Author(s) 2020

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/rdf).
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