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Author Notes:

Correspondence: Department of Chemistry, Emory University, 1515 Dickey Drive, Atlanta, GA 30322, United States (W.M. Wuest), kevin.minbiole@villanova.edu (K.P.C. Minbiole), wwuest@emory.edu (W.M. Wuest)


Research Funding:

We gratefully acknowledge funding from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (GM119426) and the National Science Foundation (CHE1755698) for support.


  • Science & Technology
  • Physical Sciences
  • Chemistry, Organic
  • Chemistry
  • Quaternary ammonium compounds
  • Disinfectants
  • Antibiotic resistance
  • MultiQACs
  • Efflux Pumps
  • Quaternary ammonium compounds
  • Cationic polymers
  • Bactericidal action
  • In-vitro
  • Antibacterial
  • Efflux
  • Constitution
  • Vancomycin
  • Induction

More QACs, more questions: Recent advances in structure activity relationships and hurdles in understanding resistance mechanisms


Journal Title:

Tetrahedron Letters


Volume 60, Number 37


Type of Work:

Article | Post-print: After Peer Review


Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are a class of antimicrobials that have been around for over a century; nevertheless, they have found continued renewal in the structures to which they can be appended. Ranging from antimicrobial polymers to adding novel modes of action to existing antibiotics, QACs have found ongoing use due to their potent properties. However, resistance against QACs has begun to emerge, and the mechanism of resistance is still only partially understood. In this review, we aim to summarize the current state of the field and what is known about the mechanisms of resistance so that the QACs of the future can be designed to be evermore efficacious and utilized to unearth the remaining mysteries that surround bacteria's resistance to them.

Copyright information:

© 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
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