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Author Notes:

Correspondence: Amy E. Kirby, aekirby@emory.edu

Author contributions: A.E.K., C.L.M. and S.S.I. wrote the main manuscript; A.E.K., Y.K., M.A., M.S. performed all the virology experiments and generated all the figures; S.S.I. and A.N.D. designed the glycans, A.N.D, D.L., X.C. and A.D. synthesized the glycans. All authors reviewed the manuscript.

Disclosures: The authors declare no competing interests.


Research Funding:

We thank NIAID (NIH R33-AI100246) for their generous support of this research.


  • Science & Technology
  • Multidisciplinary Sciences
  • Science & Technology - Other Topics
  • Norwalk virus
  • United States
  • Norovirus
  • Gastroenteritis
  • Binding

Snow Mountain Virus recovery by synthetic human histo-blood group antigens is heavily influenced by matrix effects


Journal Title:

Scientific Reports


Volume 10, Number 1


, Pages 4661-4661

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Noroviruses are known to bind to histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) and the specific binding patterns depend on the virus genotype. However, the development of point-of-care diagnostic assays based on this binding has been challenging due to low assay sensitivity. This study utilized a well-defined stool collection from a GII.2 Snow Mountain Virus (SMV) human challenge study to investigate virus recovery from stool and emesis samples using HBGA-coated beads. SMV was recovered from H type III-coated beads for 13 stool specimens out of 27 SMV-positive specimens tested. After adjusting for non-specific binding to PEG-coated beads, the mean percent recovery by H type III-coated beads was 308.11% +/− 861.61. Recovery by H type III ligands was subject-specific and weakly correlated with stool consistency. Input virus titer was not correlated with SMV recovery. The results suggest that the generally low virus recovery we observed may be due to bead saturation or hindrance by existing glycans in the matrix that precluded the virus from being captured by the synthetic glycans. These results indicate a strong role for subject-specific and matrix effects in HBGA binding by SMV. Further investigation of the nature of this interference is needed to facilitate development of high sensitivity diagnostic assays.

Copyright information:

© The Author(s) 2020.

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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