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Author Notes:

Matthew Oster, MD, MPH, Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, 2835 Brandywine Rd, Suite 400, Atlanta, GA 30341, osterm@kidsheart.com



  • Science & Technology
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Cardiac & Cardiovascular Systems
  • Respiratory System
  • Surgery
  • Cardiovascular System & Cardiology

Long-Term Survival After Arterial Versus Atrial Switch in d-Transposition of the Great Arteries


Journal Title:



Volume 106, Number 6


, Pages 1827-1833

Type of Work:

Article | Post-print: After Peer Review


Background: The arterial switch operation (ASO) became the procedure of choice for dextro-transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA) nearly 30 years ago, but the long-term results of this operation are unknown. We aimed to compare the long-term transplant-free survival of patients with d-TGA who underwent ASO versus atrial switch in the Pediatric Cardiac Care Consortium. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of d-TGA patients undergoing ASO or atrial switch in the United States between 1982 and 1991. Long-term transplant-free survival was obtained by linking Pediatric Cardiac Care Consortium data with the National Death Index and the Organ Procurement and Transplant Network. Kaplan-Meier survival plots were constructed, and multivariable regression was used to compare long-term transplant-free survival. Results: Of 554 d-TGA patients who underwent ASO (n = 259) or atrial switch (n = 295), the 20-year overall transplant-free survival was 82.1% for those undergoing ASO and 76.3% for those who had atrial switch procedure. Adjusted overall transplant-free survival beyond 10 years after operation was superior for ASO compared with atrial switch (hazard ratio 0.07, 95% confidence interval: 0.01 to 0.52, p = 0.009). During this period, the ASO had higher in-hospital mortality than the atrial switch (21.6% versus 12.9%, p = 0.007). After excluding patients with in-hospital mortality, the transplant-free survival 20 years after repair was 97.7% for the ASO patients versus 86.3% for the atrial switch patients. Conclusions: Despite initial higher in-hospital mortality for ASO during the study period, there is a significant long-term transplant-free survival advantage for ASO as compared with atrial switch for d-TGA surgery. Ongoing monitoring is required to assess late risk of cardiovascular disease.

Copyright information:

© 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
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