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Author Notes:


Declaration of competing interest: None.


Research Funding:

This manuscript has been funded by a grant (#P06254) from UK aid from the UK government, via the What Works to Prevent Violence Against Women and Girls? Global Programme (www.whatworks.co.za).

The funds were managed by the South African Medical Research Council.


  • Domestic violence
  • IPV
  • Intimate partner violence
  • Latent class analysis
  • Nepal

Intimate partner violence in Nepal: Latent patterns and association with depressive symptoms


Journal Title:

SSM - Population Health


Volume 9


, Pages 100481-100481

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Existing data suggest that there are distinct patterns (or classes) of intimate partner violence (IPV) experience that depart from dichotomous categorizations used to monitor progress toward Sustainable Development Goal 5.2. Less is known about the patterning of IPV in non-Western settings. This study estimates distinct classes of IPV experience in Nepal and examines potential community-level variability in these classes and in the association between IPV class and depressive symptoms. This study used data collected in 2016 from a random sample of Nepalese married women of reproductive age (N = 1440) living in 72 communities in three districts (Nawalparasi, Chitwan, and Kapilvastu). We used fixed effects and random effects latent class models of 2 through 6 classes. We fit a negative binomial regression model adjusted for relevant confounders to examine the relationship of the latent IPV classes with depressive symptoms. A four-class model was the best fitting. It included a “low exposure” class (77.36% of the sample) characterized by a low probability of experiencing any form of IPV, a “sexual violence” class (9.03% of the sample) characterized by a high probability of experiencing a form of sexual violence, a “moderate violence” class (6.60% of the sample) characterized by modest probabilities of experiencing less severe emotional and physical IPV, and a “systematic violence” class (7.01% of the sample) characterized by a high probability of being exposed to all forms of IPV. Adding random effects did not improve model fit, suggesting no community-level variations in classes. Relative to membership in the low exposure class, membership in all other classes was associated with a higher count of depressive symptoms. Those in the systematic class had a mean weighted symptom count 2.29 times that of the low exposure group. Classes of IPV exposure must be identified to ensure that surveillance and programming are attuned to women's experiences of violence.

Copyright information:

© 2019 The Authors

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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