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Author Notes:

F.N.: fnahab@emory.edu

F.N.: study concept and design, analysis and interpretation, critical revision of manuscript for important intellectual content, study supervision.

K.P.: study concept and design, analysis and interpretation, critical revision of manuscript for important intellectual content.

M.R.F.: acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation, critical revision of manuscript for important intellectual content.

J.A.: acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation, critical revision of manuscript for important intellectual content.

M.M.S.: acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation, critical revision of manuscript for important intellectual content, study supervision.

D.K.: acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation, critical revision of manuscript for important intellectual content, study supervision.

V.J.H.: study concept and design, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation, critical revision of manuscript for important intellectual content, study supervision.

S.J.: study concept and design, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation, critical revision of manuscript for important intellectual content, study supervision.

The authors thank the other investigators, staff and participants of the REGARDS study for their valuable contributions. A full list of participating REGARDS investigators and institutions can be found at http://www.regardsstudy.org.

Representatives of the funding agency were involved in the review of the manuscript prior to submission for publication.

There are no conflicts of interest to disclose.

Subjects:

Research Funding:

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services (cooperative agreement U01 NS041588).

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (grant number R01 HL08477)

Funding for coding of the Block FFQ was provided by General Mills.

Keywords:

  • Science & Technology
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Public, Environmental & Occupational Health
  • Nutrition & Dietetics
  • Fish
  • Fried
  • Stroke
  • Stroke belt
  • Myocardial infarction
  • POLYUNSATURATED FATTY-ACIDS
  • DOUBLE-BLIND
  • CARDIOVASCULAR OUTCOMES
  • MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION
  • HEART-DISEASE
  • MORTALITY
  • CONSUMPTION
  • OMEGA-3-FATTY-ACIDS
  • SUPPLEMENTATION
  • OIL

Dietary fried fish intake increases risk of CVD: the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study

Tools:

Journal Title:

PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION

Volume:

Volume 19, Number 18

Publisher:

, Pages 3327-3336

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF

Abstract:

Objective The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship of dietary fried fish consumption and risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Design Prospective cohort study among participants of the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study who resided in the USA. Setting The primary outcome measures included the hazard ratios (HR) of incident CVD including first incident fatal or non-fatal ischaemic stroke or myocardial infarction and all-cause mortality, based on cumulative average fish consumption ascertained at baseline. Subjects Participants (n 16 479) were enrolled between 2003 and 2007, completed the self-administered Block98 FFQ and were free of CVD at baseline. Results There were 700 cardiovascular events over a mean follow-up of 5·1 years. After adjustment for sociodemographic variables, health behaviours and other CVD risk factors, participants eating ≥2 servings fried fish/week (v. <1 serving/month) were at a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular events (HR=1·63; 95 % CI 1·11, 2·40). Intake of non-fried fish was not associated with risk of incident CVD. There was no association found with dietary fried or non-fried fish intake and cardiovascular or all-cause mortality. Conclusions Fried fish intake of two or more servings per week is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Given the increased intake of fried fish in the stroke belt and among African Americans, these data suggest that dietary fried fish intake may contribute to geographic and racial disparities in CVD.

Copyright information:

© The Authors 2016.

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
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