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Author Notes:

Corresponding author: Christopher T. Rentsch, MPH, VA Connecticut Healthcare System, Yale University School of Medicine, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, WC1E 7HT, London, UK, Christopher.Rentsch@va.gov

The views expressed in this manuscript represent those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of the Department of Veterans Affairs.

Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest.


Research Funding:

Support for VA/CMS data is provided by the Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health Administration, Office of Research and Development, Health Services Research and Development, and VA Information Resource Center (SDR 02–237 and 98–004).

This work was supported by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH), including grants from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism [U24-AA020794, U01-AA020790, U10 AA013566-completed to ACJ] and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [R01 HL090342 to KC, K24 HL087713 to LH].


  • Science & Technology
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Immunology
  • Infectious Diseases
  • intensive care units
  • HIV
  • hepatitis C
  • alcoholism
  • electronic health records
  • veterans
  • RISK

Medical Intensive Care Unit Admission Among Patients With and Without HIV, Hepatitis C Virus, and Alcohol-Related Diagnoses in the United States: A National, Retrospective Cohort Study, 1997-2014

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Journal Title:

Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes


Volume 80, Number 2


, Pages 145-151

Type of Work:

Article | Post-print: After Peer Review


Background:HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and alcohol-related diagnoses (ARD) independently contribute increased risk of all-cause hospitalization. We sought to determine annual medical intensive care unit (MICU) admission rates and relative risk of MICU admission between 1997 and 2014 among people with and without HIV, HCV, and ARD, using data from the largest HIV and HCV care provider in the United States. Setting:Veterans Health Administration. Methods:Annual MICU admission rates were calculated among 155,550 patients in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study by HIV, HCV, and ARD status. Adjusted rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated with Poisson regression. Significance of trends in age-adjusted admission rates were tested with generalized linear regression. Models were stratified by calendar period to identify shifts in MICU admission risk over time.Results:Compared to HIV-/HCV-/ARD- patients, relative risk of MICU admission decreased among HIV-mono-infected patients from 61% (95% CI: 1.56 to 1.65) in 1997-2009% to 21% (95% CI: 1.16 to 1.27) in 2010-2014, increased among HCV-mono-infected patients from 22% (95% CI: 1.16 to 1.29) in 1997-2009% to 54% (95% CI: 1.43 to 1.67) in 2010-2014, and remained consistent among patients with ARD only at 46% (95% CI: 1.42 to 1.50). MICU admission rates decreased by 48% among HCV-uninfected patients (P-trend <0.0001) but did not change among HCV+ patients (P-trend = 0.34). Conclusion:HCV infection and ARD remain key contributors to MICU admission risk. The impact of each of these conditions could be mitigated with combination of treatment of HIV, HCV, and interventions targeting unhealthy alcohol use.

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