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Author Notes:

Tel.: +1-404-778-3184; Fax: +1-404-778-2578; jmassaa@emory.edu

S.M., S.C., and J.F.M. reviewed the current literature pertinent to the manuscript; S.M. wrote the initial manuscript; S.C. and J.F.M. critically appraised the manuscript and provided revisions; S.M. submitted the final manuscript on behalf of the co-authors; all authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the manuscript. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

None of the authors has a conflict of interest to disclose.

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Research Funding:

This article published with support from Emory Libraries' Open Access Publishing Fund.

Keywords:

  • Science & Technology
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Medicine, General & Internal
  • General & Internal Medicine
  • gastrointestinal bleeding
  • risk factors
  • non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  • endoscopy
  • guidelines
  • hemostasis
  • DOUBLE-BALLOON ENTEROSCOPY
  • WIRELESS CAPSULE ENDOSCOPY
  • ARTIFICIAL NEURAL-NETWORK
  • HEMOSTATIC POWDER TC-325
  • PUMP INHIBITOR THERAPY
  • ANKAFERD BLOOD STOPPER
  • RISK BLEEDING ULCERS
  • UPPER-GI HEMORRHAGE
  • SMALL-BOWEL
  • PEPTIC-ULCER

Diagnosis and Management of Non-Variceal Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: A Review of Current Guidelines and Future Perspectives

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Journal Title:

Journal of Clinical Medicine

Volume:

Volume 9, Number 2

Publisher:

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF

Abstract:

Non-variceal gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide which is encountered in the ambulatory and hospital settings. Hemorrhage form the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is categorized as upper GIB, small bowel bleeding (also formerly referred to as obscure GIB) or lower GIB. Although the etiologies of GIB are variable, a strong, consistent risk factor is use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Advances in the endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of GIB have led to improved outcomes. We present an updated review of the current practices regarding the diagnosis and management of non-variceal GIB, and possible future directions.

Copyright information:

© 2020 by the authors.

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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