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Author Notes:

Aylin N. Bilgutay: aylin.bilgutay@gmail.com

All authors contributed to study design, interpretation of results, and writing/editing of manuscript.

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.



  • Science & Technology
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Pediatrics
  • vesicoureteral reflux
  • urinary tract infection
  • endoscopic surgery
  • long-term effect
  • patient outcome assessment

Long-Term Clinical Outcomes and Parental Satisfaction After Dextranomer/Hyaluronic Acid (Dx/HA) Injection for Primary Vesicoureteral Reflux


Journal Title:

Frontiers in Pediatrics


Volume 7, Number SEP


, Pages 392-392

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Purpose: Endoscopic dextranomer/hyaluronic acid (Dx/HA) injection is a common treatment for vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) with excellent reported short-term clinical success rates. Long-term outcomes are less well-defined. We assessed long-term outcomes and parental satisfaction after Dx/HA injection for primary VUR with >5-year follow-up. Materials and Methods: Families of all patients who underwent Dx/HA injection for primary VUR at our institution between 2008 and 2012 were contacted for telephone interview. Data collected by phone included parental satisfaction and presence and severity of UTIs pre-operatively and post-operatively. Patient demographics, radiographic VUR data, need for secondary surgery, and surgical indications were obtained through chart review. Results: Five hundred and seventy-five patients underwent Dx/HA injection for primary VUR between 2008 and 2012. Ninety-nine (17.2%) of these patients’ parents were successfully contacted and interviewed. Median follow-up time from surgery to survey was 8.4 (IQR 6.8–9.6) years. Secondary surgery was performed in 13/99 (13.1%), most commonly repeat Dx/HA injection. Seven patients (7.1%) underwent secondary Dx/HA injection for persistent VUR without UTIs at a median of 0.35 (IQR 0.33–0.77) years post-operatively. Five patients (5.1%) underwent Dx/HA injection (n = 3) or ureteral reimplantation (n = 2) for VUR with febrile UTIs (fUTIs) at a median of 2.2 (IQR 1.3–5.1) years. One patient had ureteral reimplantation for symptomatic obstruction 2.8 years after initial surgery. Only 3/99 (3.0%) required open or laparoscopic surgery after Dx/HA injection. Eighty-three families (84.7%) reported ≥1 fUTIs pre-operatively. Of these, only 9/83 (10.8%) reported fUTIs post-operatively, for an overall clinical success rate of 89.2%. Clinical success was 93.1% in patients whose pre-operative fUTIs were treated outpatient and 80.0% in those hospitalized at least once for fUTI treatment pre-operatively. Ninety-four percent of parents were highly satisfied, 2.4% partially satisfied, and 3.5% dissatisfied. Conclusions: Endoscopic injection with Dx/HA for primary VUR appears to have good long-term clinical success rates and high parental satisfaction, mirroring our previously reported short-term results. Post-operative ureteral obstruction is rare but may occur years post-operatively, justifying initial sonographic surveillance, and repeat imaging in symptomatic patients.

Copyright information:

© 2019 Lightfoot, Bilgutay, Tollin, Eisenberg, Weiser, Bryan, Smith, Elmore, Scherz and Kirsch.

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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