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Author Notes:

Mark A. Fogel, MD, FACC, FAHA, FAAP, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Cardiology, 34th St. and Civic Center Blvd., Philadelphia, PA 19104, Telephone: 215-590-7566, FAX: 215-590-5825 fogel@email.chop.edu

The authors wish to acknowledge Jarek Rossignac for development of the virtual surgery interface; Diane de Zélicourt for development and implementation of the computational fluid dynamics solver; and Thomas Spray, J. William Gaynor, Kirk Kanter, and Pedro del Nido for lending their expertise and surgical insights.

Dr. Fogel has a grant from Edwards Life Sciences, Siemens Medical Solutions and is medical monitor for an imaging agent from Kereos

Drs. Haggerty and Yoganathan have no disclosures.


Research Funding:

This work was supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health (R01HL67622 and R01HL098252); and the American Heart Association (10PRE3720002).


  • Science & Technology
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Cardiac & Cardiovascular Systems
  • Pediatrics
  • Cardiovascular System & Cardiology
  • Fontan procedure
  • magnetic resonance imaging
  • computational modeling

Magnetic resonance imaging-guided surgical design: can we optimise the Fontan operation?


Journal Title:

Cardiology in the Young


Volume 23, Number 6


, Pages 818-823

Type of Work:

Article | Post-print: After Peer Review


The Fontan procedure, although an imperfect solution for children born with a single functional ventricle, is the only reconstruction at present short of transplantation. The haemodynamics associated with the total cavopulmonary connection, the modern approach to Fontan, are severely altered from the normal biventricular circulation and may contribute to the long-term complications that are frequently noted. Through recent technological advances, spear-headed by advances in medical imaging, it is now possible to virtually model these surgical procedures and evaluate the patient-specific haemodynamics as part of the pre-operative planning process. This is a novel paradigm with the potential to revolutionise the approach to Fontan surgery, help to optimise the haemodynamic results, and improve patient outcomes. This review provides a brief overview of these methods, presents preliminary results of their clinical usage, and offers insights into its potential future directions.

Copyright information:

Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2013.

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