About this item:

172 Views | 274 Downloads

Author Notes:

Ciara E. O’Reilly, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. bwf1@cdc.gov

This study includes data generated by the Kenya Medical Research Institute/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KEMRI/CDC) Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), which is a member of the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and their Health (INDEPTH).

We acknowledge the contributions of and thank the KEMRI/CDC HDSS team; the CDC Kenya Division of Global HIV/AIDS; the International Emerging Infections Program; Global Disease Detection Program; the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) Kenya staff for supporting the data collection and processing; and the GEMS Data Coordinating Center, Perry Point Veterans Administration Medical Center, Perry Point, MD.

We are grateful to the caretakers in the Asembo, Gem, and Karemo communities who participated in this work.

This manuscript is published with the approval of the director of KEMRI.



  • Science & Technology
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Public, Environmental & Occupational Health
  • Tropical Medicine
  • CARE

Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Characteristics among HIV-Positive Households Participating in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study in Rural Western Kenya, 2008-2012

Show all authors Show less authors


Journal Title:

American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene


Volume 99, Number 4


, Pages 905-915

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Diarrheal illness, acommonoccurrence among people living with humanimmunodeficiency virus (PLHIV), is largely preventable through access to safe drinking water quality, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) facilities. We examined WASH characteristics among households with and without HIV-positive residents enrolled in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) in rural Western Kenya. Using univariable logistic regression, we examined differences between HIV-positive and HIV-negative households in regard to WASH practices. Among HIV-positive households, we explored the relationship between the length of time knowing their HIV status and GEMS enrollment. No statistically significant differences were apparent in the WASH characteristics among HIV-positive and HIV-negative households. However, we found differences in the WASH characteristics among HIV-positive households who were aware of their HIV status ≥30 days before enrollment compared with HIV-positive households who found out their status < 30 days before enrollment or thereafter. Significantly more households aware of their HIV-positive status before enrollment reported treating their drinking water (odds ratio [OR] confidence interval [CI]: 2.34 [1.12, 4.86]) and using effective water treatment methods (OR [CI]: 9.6 [3.09, 29.86]), and had better drinking water storage practices. This suggests that within this region of Kenya, HIV programs are effective in promoting the importance of practicing positive WASH-related behaviors among PLHIV.

Copyright information:

Copyright © 2018 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Export to EndNote