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Author Notes:

Manuscript correspondence: Donald G. Stein, Ph.D., Emergency Medicine Brain Research Laboratory, Suite 5100, 1365B Clifton Road NE, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, (404) 712-2540 (phone), (404) 727-2388 (fax), dstei04@emory.edu

The authors would like to thank Leslie McCann for invaluable editorial assistance.

The last author (D.G.S.) is entitled to royalty payment from BHR Pharmaceuticals related to research on progesterone and brain injury. His future financial interests may be affected by the outcome of this research. The terms of this arrangement have been reviewed and approved by Emory University in accordance with its conflict of interest policies.

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Research Funding:

his research was supported by funding from NIH grants #1RO1N540825 and #1RO1N538664 and the Emory University Graduate School of Arts and Sciences.


  • 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3
  • combination therapy
  • neurosteroids
  • progesterone
  • traumatic brain injury
  • vitamin D

Combination Treatment with Progesterone and Vitamin D Hormone May Be More Effective than Monotherapy for Nervous System Injury and Disease


Journal Title:

Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology


Volume 30, Number 2


, Pages 158-172

Type of Work:

Article | Post-print: After Peer Review


More than two decades of pre-clinical research and two recent clinical trials have shown that progesterone (PROG) and its metabolites exert beneficial effects after traumatic brain injury (TBI) through a number of metabolic and physiological pathways that can reduce damage in many different tissues and organ systems. Emerging data on 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VDH), itself a steroid hormone, have begun to provide evidence that, like PROG, it too is neuroprotective, although some of its actions may involve different pathways. Both agents have high safety profiles, act on many different injury and pathological mechanisms, and are clinically relevant, easy to administer, and inexpensive. Furthermore, vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in a large segment of the population, especially the elderly and institutionalized, and can significantly affect recovery after CNS injury. The combination of PROG and VDH in pre-clinical and clinical studies is a novel and compelling approach to TBI treatment.

Copyright information:

© 2009, Elsevier

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommerical-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

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