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Author Notes:

Correspondence should be addressed to Andrew J. Butler, andrew.butler@emory.edu

Academic Editor: David Baxter

The authors certify that no party having a direct interest in the results of the research supporting this paper has or will confer a benefit on them or on any organization with which they are associated and, if applicable, they certify that all financial and material support for this research (e.g., NIH or NHS grants) and work are clearly identified in the acknowledgment section of the paper.


Research Funding:

This paper was supported by NIH R21 AT002138-03 and VA B4657P.

The Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised, Second Edition (MIQ-RS) Is a Reliable and Valid Tool for Evaluating Motor Imagery in Stroke Populations


Journal Title:

Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine


Volume 2012, Number 2012


, Pages 1-11

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Mental imagery can improve motor performance in stroke populations when combined with physical therapy. Valid and reliable instruments to evaluate the imagery ability of stroke survivors are needed to maximize the benefits of mental imagery therapy. The purposes of this study were to: examine and compare the test-retest intra-rate reliability of the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised, Second Edition (MIQ-RS) in stroke survivors and able-bodied controls, examine internal consistency of the visual and kinesthetic items of the MIQ-RS, determine if the MIQ-RS includes both the visual and kinesthetic dimensions of mental imagery, correlate impairment and motor imagery scores, and investigate the criterion validity of the MIQ-RS in stroke survivors by comparing the results to the KVIQ-10. Test-retest analysis indicated good levels of reliability (ICC range: .83–.99) and internal consistency (Cronbach α: .95–.98) of the visual and kinesthetic subscales in both groups. The two-factor structure of the MIQ-RS was supported by factor analysis, with the visual and kinesthetic components accounting for 88.6% and 83.4% of the total variance in the able-bodied and stroke groups, respectively. The MIQ-RS is a valid and reliable instrument in the stroke population examined and able-bodied populations and therefore useful as an outcome measure for motor imagery ability.

Copyright information:

© 2012 Andrew J. Butler et al.

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

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