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Author Notes:

Correspondence: E-mail: iskount@emory.edu (IS); Email: rcompan@emory.edu (RWC)

Conceived and designed the experiments: MdPM SS IS.

Performed the experiments: MdPM DGK IS.

Analyzed the data: MdPM IS.

Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: SS JJ RWC IS.

Wrote the paper: MdPM IS.

Provided scientific advice and manuscript editing: JJ.

Scientific discussions and feedback, major manuscript additions: RWC.

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


Research Funding:

This work was supported in part by National Institutes of Health grants A1074579 and by contract HHSN266200700006C from NIH/NIAID.

Maria del P. Martin is a trainee supported by contract HHSN266200700006C from NIH/NIAID.

Adjuvanted Influenza Vaccine Administered Intradermally Elicits Robust Long-Term Immune Responses that Confer Protection from Lethal Challenge


Journal Title:



Volume 5, Number 5


, Pages 1-9

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Background The respiratory illnesses caused by influenza virus can be dramatically reduced by vaccination. The current trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine is effective in eliciting systemic virus-specific antibodies sufficient to control viral replication. However, influenza protection generated after parenteral immunization could be improved by the induction of mucosal immune responses. Methodology/Principal Findings Transcutaneous immunization, a non-invasive vaccine delivery method, was used to investigate the quality, duration and effectiveness of the immune responses induced in the presence of inactivated influenza virus co-administered with retinoic acid or oleic acid. We observed an increased migration of dendritic cells to the draining lymph nodes after dermal vaccination. Here we demonstrate that this route of vaccine delivery in combination with certain immunomodulators can induce potent immune responses that result in long-term protective immunity. Additionally, mice vaccinated with inactivated virus in combination with retinoic acid show an enhanced sIgA antibody response, increased number of antibody secreting cells in the mucosal tissues, and protection from a higher influenza lethal dose. Conclusions/Significance The present study demonstrates that transdermal administration of inactivated virus in combination with immunomodulators stimulates dendritic cell migration, results in long-lived systemic and mucosal responses that confer effective protective immunity.

Copyright information:

© 2010 Martin et al.

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Generic License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/).

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