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Author Notes:

Martyn Goulding: Telephone: +1 858 4534100 x1558; Fax: +1 858 4502172; goulding@salk.edu. Present address: Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4R2, Canada

Jingming Zhang undertook all of the electrophysiological analyses; The recordings in Figure 8 were performed by Zhi Wang, with help from Jingming Zhang; Guillermo Lanuza generated and characterized the Gata3Cre knockin mice used in this study; He also performed the anatomical and neurotracing analyses with help from Valerie Seimbab; Both co-first authors helped with the experimental design and writing of the manuscript.

We thank Doug Engel for the Gata3::lacZ ansgenic mouse line.

We would like to thank Simon Gosgnach for his early contribution to the analysis of the Pax6 mutant mice.

We also thank Tom Jessell, Chris Kintner, Greg Lemke , John Thomas, Lidia Garcia-Campmany and James Flynn for their thoughtful comments and criticisms.

Subjects:

Research Funding:

This research was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health (R37-NS037075, P01-NS031249, R01-NS047357); the Human Frontier Science Program; and the Christopher and Dana Reeve Foundation.

GL was supported by an HFSP postdoctoral fellowship.

Keywords:

  • Science & Technology
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Neurosciences
  • Neurosciences & Neurology
  • GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN
  • RECIPROCAL IA INHIBITION
  • SPINAL-CORD
  • NEONATAL-RAT
  • V2-DERIVED INTERNEURONS
  • SYNAPTIC DRIVE
  • MOTONEURONS
  • NETWORKS
  • NEURONS
  • LOCALIZATION

V1 and V2b Interneurons Secure the Alternating Flexor-Extensor Motor Activity Mice Require for Limbed Locomotion

Tools:

Journal Title:

Neuron

Volume:

Volume 82, Number 1

Publisher:

, Pages 138-150

Type of Work:

Article | Post-print: After Peer Review

Abstract:

Reciprocal activation of flexor and extensor muscles constitutes the fundamental mechanism that tetrapod vertebrates use for locomotion and limb-driven reflex behaviors. This aspect of motor coordination is controlled by inhibitory neurons in the spinal cord; however, the identity of the spinal interneurons that serve this function is not known. Here, we show that the production of an alternating flexor-extensor motor rhythm depends on the composite activities of two classes of ventrally located inhibitory neurons, V1 and V2b interneurons (INs). Abrogating V1 and V2b IN-derived neurotransmission in the isolated spinal cord results in a synchronous pattern of L2 flexor-related and L5 extensor-related locomotor activity. Mice lacking V1 and V2b inhibition are unable to articulate their limb joints and display marked deficits in limb-driven reflex movements. Taken together, these findings identify V1- and V2b-derived neurons as the core interneuronal components of the limb central pattern generator (CPG) that coordinate flexor-extensor motor activity.

Copyright information:

© 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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