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Author Notes:

Michael M. Johns, Department of Otolaryngology, The Emory Voice Center, Emory University, Medical Office Tower, 9th Floor, 550 Peachtree Street, Atlanta, GA 30308. Michael.m.johns@emoryhealthcare.org.

Authors reported no conflicts of interest.


Research Funding:

Funding support for this project has been provided by The Dystonia Coalition, which is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Rare Disease Clinical Research Network through the NIH Office of Rare Diseases Research (NS067501); and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.

This project is also supported in part by PHS Grant Jul1RR125008, KL2 RR025009, or TL1 RR025010 from the Clinical and Translational Science Award program, National Center for Research Resources, NIH.


  • Science & Technology
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Audiology & Speech-Language Pathology
  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Spasmodic dysphonia

Coprevalence of Anxiety and Depression With Spasmodic Dysphonia: A Case-Control Study


Journal Title:

Journal of Voice


Volume 26, Number 5


, Pages 667.e1-667.e6

Type of Work:

Article | Post-print: After Peer Review


Introduction: There is evidence supporting an association between depression and anxiety in patients with chronic disease. Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a chronic, incurable, and disabling voice disorder. Reported rates of depression and anxiety in SD range from 7.1% to 72%, with a maximum number of 18 patients. The goal of this study was to define the coprevalence of depression and anxiety with SD. Materials and Methods: A single-institution case-control study was performed from May to July 2010. Consecutive patients with SD and benign voice disorders were enrolled prospectively. On enrollment, patients were asked to fill out a questionnaire that reviewed the duration of the voice disorder and personal history of anxiety and depression, including current and lifetime diagnosis. Results: One hundred forty-six controls with benign voice disorders and 128 patients with SD were enrolled. Patients with SD were no more likely to be diagnosed with depression or anxiety than those of the control group (odds ratio [OR] = 0.985, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.59-1.63; and OR = 1.314; 95% CI = 0.75-2.3, respectively). Additionally, duration of disease was a risk factor for depression in both the SD group and the control group, and the association was not significantly different between groups. Conclusion: Patients with SD were no more likely to have depression or anxiety than those with other voice disorders. It is important for otolaryngologists to be aware of the increased rates of depression in patients diagnosed with chronic diseases, including voice disorders, and to refer to a psychiatrist when appropriate.

Copyright information:

© 2012 The Voice Foundation.

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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