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Author Notes:

G. N. Neigh, 615 Michael Street, Suite 601, Atlanta, GA 30322, United States. Tel: +1-404-727-9022; fax:+1-404-727-2648., gretchen.neigh@emory.edu

Subjects:

Research Funding:

G.N.N. and M.B. partially supported by CNIHR Grant R24-AI067039-06; G.N.N. and C.L.N. supported by American Heart Association Predoctoral Fellowship.

Keywords:

  • Science & Technology
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Neurosciences
  • Neurosciences & Neurology
  • inflammation
  • HIV
  • cardiovascular
  • cerebrovascular
  • AIDS
  • immune
  • ENDOTHELIAL PROGENITOR CELLS
  • AMERICAN-HEART-ASSOCIATION
  • ANXIETY-LIKE BEHAVIOR
  • RISK-FACTORS
  • ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY
  • INFECTED PATIENTS
  • CARDIOPULMONARY-RESUSCITATION
  • CEREBROVASCULAR-DISEASE
  • COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT
  • ALZHEIMERS-DISEASE

Neural effects of inflammation, cardiovascular disease, and HIV: Parallel, perpendicular, or progressive?

Tools:

Journal Title:

Neuroscience

Volume:

Volume 302

Publisher:

, Pages 165-173

Type of Work:

Article | Post-print: After Peer Review

Abstract:

The pervasive reach of the inflammatory system is evidenced by its involvement in numerous disease states. Cardiovascular disease, marked by high levels of circulating inflammatory mediators, affects an estimated 83.6 million Americans. Similarly, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) produces a paradoxical state of generalized immune activity despite widespread immunosuppression, and affects 35 million people worldwide. Patients living with HIV (PLWH) suffer from inflammatory conditions, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), at a rate exceeding the general population. In this combined disease state, immune mechanisms that are common to both CVD and HIV may interact to generate a progressive condition that contributes to the exacerbated pathogenesis of the other to the net effect of damage to the brain. In this review, we will outline inflammatory cell mediators that promote cardiovascular risk factors and disease initiation and detail how HIV-related proteins may accelerate this process. Finally, we examine the extent to which these comorbid conditions act as parallel, perpendicular, or progressive sequela of events to generate a neurodegenerative environment, and consider potential strategies that can be implemented to reduce the burden of CVD and inflammation in PLWH.

Copyright information:

© 2014 IBRO.

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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