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Author Notes:

Shiki Takamura: takamura@med.kindai.ac.jp

All authors listed have made a substantial, direct and intellectual contribution to the work, and approved it for publication.

We thank Dr. David L. Woodland for editing the manuscript.

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.


Research Funding:

This work is supported by Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (A) 24689043, and Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) 16K08850 from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan; and grants from Takeda Science Foundation; Daiichi-Sankyo Foundation of Life Science; Uehara Memorial Foundation; Kanae Foundation for the Promotion of Medical Science; The Waksman Foundation of Japan; Kato Memorial Bioscience Foundation; Mochida Memorial Foundation for Medical and Pharmaceutical Research; Life Science Foundation of Japan; Japan Foundation for Pediatric Research; The Naito Foundation; and SENSHIN Medical Research Foundation (All to ST).


  • Science & Technology
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Immunology
  • tissue-resident memory
  • CD8(+) T cells
  • memory T cell maintenance
  • lung
  • respiratory virus infections

Establishment and Maintenance of Conventional and Circulation-Driven Lung-Resident Memory CD8(+) T Cells Following Respiratory Virus Infections


Journal Title:

Frontiers in Immunology


Volume 10


, Pages 733-733

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Antigen-specific CD8+ tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM cells) persist in the lung following resolution of a respiratory virus infection and provide first-line defense against reinfection. In contrast to other memory T cell populations, such as central memory T cells that circulate between lymph and blood, and effector memory T cells (TEM cells) that circulate between blood and peripheral tissues, TRM cells are best defined by their permanent residency in the tissues and their independence from circulatory T cell populations. Consistent with this, we recently demonstrated that CD8+ TRM cells primarily reside within specific niches in the lung (Repair-Associated Memory Depots; RAMD) that normally exclude CD8+ TEM cells. However, it has also been reported that circulating CD8+ TEM cells continuously convert into CD8+ TRM cells in the lung interstitium, helping to sustain TRM numbers. The relative contributions of these two mechanisms of CD8+ TRM cells maintenance in the lung has been the source of vigorous debate. Here we propose a model in which the majority of CD8+ TRM cells are maintained within RAMD (conventional TRM) whereas a small fraction of TRM are derived from circulating CD8+ TEM cells and maintained in the interstitium. The numbers of both types of TRM cells wane over time due to declines in both RAMD availability and the overall number of TEM in the circulation. This model is consistent with most published reports and has important implications for the development of vaccines designed to elicit protective T cell memory in the lung.

Copyright information:

© 2019 Takamura and Kohlmeier.

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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