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Author Notes:

Anna V Blenda, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, 607 Grove Road Greenville, Greenville, SC 29605, USA. Email: ablenda@greenvillemed.sc.edu

Anna V. Blenda ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7669-3120

W.F.A. and C.R.F. wrote equivalent parts of the article, critically reviewed each other’s sections, and made all the revisions.

A.V.B. conceived, supervised, was involved with all aspects, as well as performed general coordination of the project.

All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

W.F.A. and C.R.F. contributed equally and are co-first authors.

The authors thank Dr Guy Benian, MD, and Dr Sergio Arce, MD/PhD, for comments and edits to the manuscript.

The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.


Research Funding:

C.R.F. was supported by a Howard Hughes Medical Research Fellowship.


  • Galectin
  • biomarkers
  • cerebrovascular accident
  • hemorrhagic stroke
  • ischemic stroke
  • transient ischemic attack

Galectins in the Pathogenesis of Cerebrovascular Accidents: An Overview.


Journal Title:

Journal of Experimental Neuroscience


Volume 13


, Pages 1179069519836794-1179069519836794

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Due to limitations of neuroimaging, such as the isodense appearance of blood to neuronal tissue in subacute hemorrhagic stroke, a body of studies have been performed to evaluate candidate biomarkers which may aid in accurate determination of cerebrovascular accident type. Beyond aiding in the delineation of stroke cause, biomarkers could also confer useful prognostic information to help clinicians plan use of resources. One of the candidate biomarkers studied for detection of cerebrovascular accident (CVA) includes a class of proteins called galectins. Galectins bind β-galactoside through a highly conserved carbohydrate recognition domain, endowing an ability to interact with carbohydrate moieties on glycoproteins, some of which are relevant to CVA response. Furthermore, galectins-1, -2, -3, -9, and -12 are expressed in tissues relevant to CVA, and some exhibit characteristics (eg, extracellular secretion) that could render feasible their detection in serum. Galectins-1 and -3 appear to have the largest amounts of preclinical evidence, consistently demonstrating increased activity and expression levels during CVA. However, a lack of standardization of biochemical assays across cohort studies limits further translation of these basic science studies. This review aims to increase awareness of the biochemical roles of galectins in CVA, while also highlighting challenges and remaining questions preventing the translation of basic science observations into a clinically useful test.

Copyright information:

© The Author(s) 2019

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/).

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