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Author Notes:

Correspondence: vgcorces@gmail.com

M.J.R. and V.G.C. designed the project and wrote the manuscript.

M.A.-K. and X.L. performed RNAPII ChIP-seq.

M.A.-K. and X.L. performed RNAPII ChIP-seq

R.K. performed knockdown of Rad21 and flavopiridol treatment.

M.J.R. performed remaining experiments and data analysis.

We would like to thank the HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology Genomic Services Lab for their help with Illumina sequencing.

The authors declare no competing interests.


Research Funding:

This work was supported by NIH Pathway to Independence Award K99/R00 GM127671 (M.J.R.) and U.S. Public Health Service Award (R01) GM035463 (V.G.C.) from the NIH.


  • Science & Technology
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Cell Biology
  • CTCF

Condensin II Counteracts Cohesin and RNA Polymerase II in the Establishment of 3D Chromatin Organization


Journal Title:

Cell Reports


Volume 26, Number 11


, Pages 2890-+

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Interaction domains in Drosophila chromosomes form by segregation of active and inactive chromatin in the absence of CTCF loops, but the role of transcription versus other architectural proteins in chromatin organization is unclear. Here, we find that positioning of RNAPII via transcription elongation is essential in the formation of gene loops, which in turn interact to form compartmental domains. Inhibition of transcription elongation or depletion of cohesin decreases gene looping and formation of active compartmental domains. In contrast, depletion of condensin II, which also localizes to active chromatin, causes increased gene looping, formation of compartmental domains, and stronger intra-chromosomal compartmental interactions. Condensin II has a similar role in maintaining inter-chromosomal interactions responsible for pairing between homologous chromosomes, whereas inhibition of transcription elongation or cohesin depletion has little effect on homolog pairing. The results suggest distinct roles for cohesin and condensin II in the establishment of 3D nuclear organization in Drosophila.

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© 2019 The Author(s)

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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