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Author Notes:

Correspondence: Melissa A. Truelove, 954 Gatewood Rd NE, Atlanta, GA 30329, mtruelo@emory.edu, Phone: 404-712-9526.

The authors thank the husbandry, veterinary, and behavioral management staff involved in the care of the monkeys at the center.

We thank Patrick Reinhardt for editing and helpful feedback.

No authors have conflicts of interest.


Research Funding:

This project was supported by the NIH/OD grant P51-OD-011132 to the Yerkes National Primate Research Center.


  • Socialization
  • pairing
  • captive social management
  • welfare
  • Macaques
  • partner selection

Pair housing of Macaques: A review of partner selection, introduction techniques, monitoring for compatibility, and methods for long-term maintenance of pairs


Journal Title:

American Journal of Primatology


Volume 79, Number 1


, Pages e22485-e22485

Type of Work:

Article | Post-print: After Peer Review


Pair housing of macaques has become a widely implemented compromise between meeting the social needs of the monkeys and allowing for their use in biomedical research. While beneficial to the animals, pair housing can provide challenges for those caring for them. Drawing from both scientific literature and direct experience, this paper provides a review of practical aspects of pair housing including partner selection, pairing methodologies, staff education, and equipment considerations. Recommendations include selecting a pairing method appropriate to the facility and the individual animals being paired, educating staff on social behavior, and establishing a pair monitoring program to facilitate long-term pair maintenance. Assessment of behavior is essential in determining the compatibility of new pairs and in identifying established pairs that may need interventions to enhance their long-term compatibility. The pair housing program at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center is described as one model of a successful program.

Copyright information:

© 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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