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Author Notes:

Corresponding Author: Sarah J. Willis, 135 Dauer Drive, Suite 2101 McGavran-Greenberg Hall, CB#7435, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7435 sarah_willis@med.unc.edu

S.J.W. and S.R.C. designed the study.

A.E. compiled the data.

S.J.W. performed the data analysis.

S.J.W., S.R.C., D.W., A.E., C.B.H. and A.A.A. had significant contributions to the writing of this article.

The article was extensively reviewed, edited, and approved for submission by all other co-authors, who are part of the Women’s Interagency HIV Study and had patients involved in the study.

Data in this manuscript were collected by the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS).

WIHS (Principal Investigators): UAB-MS WIHS (Mirjam-Colette Kempf and Deborah Konkle-Parker), U01-AI-103401; Atlanta WIHS (Ighovwerha Ofotokun and Gina Wingood), U01-AI-103408; Bronx WIHS (Kathryn Anastos), U01-AI-035004; Brooklyn WIHS (Howard Minkoff and Deborah Gustafson), U01-AI-031834; Chicago WIHS (Mardge Cohen and Audrey French), U01-AI-034993; Metropolitan Washington WIHS (Seble Kassaye), U01-AI-034994; Miami WIHS (Margaret Fischl and Lisa Metsch), U01-AI-103397; UNC WIHS (Adaora Adimora), U01-AI-103390; Connie Wofsy Women’s HIV Study, Northern California (Ruth Greenblatt, Bradley Aouizerat, and Phyllis Tien), U01-AI-034989; WIHS Data Management and Analysis Center (Stephen Gange and Elizabeth Golub), U01-AI-042590; Southern California WIHS (Joel Milam), U01-HD-032632 (WIHS I – WIHS IV).


Research Funding:

The WIHS is funded primarily by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), with additional co-funding from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), and the National Institute on Mental Health (NIMH).

Targeted supplemental funding for specific projects is also provided by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), the National Institute on Deafness and other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), and the NIH Office of Research on Women’s Health.

WIHS data collection is also supported by UL1-TR000004 (UCSF CTSA), UL1-TR000454 (Atlanta CTSA), and P30-AI-050410 (UNC CFAR).


  • Science & Technology
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Immunology
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology
  • antiretroviral therapy
  • hepatitis C virus coinfection
  • hepatitis C virus
  • HIV infection
  • viral load
  • women
  • HCV

Chronic hepatitis C virus infection and subsequent HIV viral load among women with HIV initiating antiretroviral therapy

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Journal Title:



Volume 32, Number 5


, Pages 653-661

Type of Work:

Article | Post-print: After Peer Review


Objectives: One in four persons living with HIV is coinfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Biological and behavioral mechanisms may increase HIV viral load among coinfected persons. Therefore, we estimated the longitudinal effect of chronic HCV on HIV suppression after ART initiation among women with HIV (WWH). Design: HIV RNA was measured every 6 months among 441 WWH in the Women's Interagency HIV Study who initiated ART from 2000 to 2015. Methods: Log-binomial regression models were used to compare the proportion of study visits with detectable HIV RNA between women with and without chronic HCV. Robust sandwich variance estimators accounted for within-person correlation induced by repeated HIV RNA measurements during follow-up. We controlled for confounding and selection bias (because of loss to follow-up and death) using inverse probability-of-exposure-and-censoring weights. Results: One hundred and fourteen women (25%) had chronic HCV before ART initiation. Overall, the proportion of visits with detectable HIV RNA was similar among women with and without chronic HCV [relative risk (RR) 1.19 (95% CI 0.72, 1.95)]. Six months after ART initiation, the proportion of visits with detectable HIV RNA among women with chronic HCV was 1.88 (95% CI 1.41-2.51) times that among women without HCV, at 2 years, the ratio was 1.60 (95% CI 1.17-2.19), and by 6 years there was no difference (1.03; 95% CI 0.60-1.79). Conclusion: Chronic HCV may negatively impact early HIV viral response to ART. These findings reaffirm the need to test persons with HIV for HCV infection, and increase engagement in HIV care and access to HCV treatment among persons with HIV/HCV coinfection.

Copyright information:

© Copyright 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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