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Author Notes:

Correspondence: Andy Y. Shih, Department of Neuroscience, Medical University of South Carolina, 173 Ashley Ave. CRI 406, Charleston, SC 29425, Office: 843-876-1868, Fax: 843-792-4423, shiha@musc.edu.

We would like to thank Brian Bacskai for critical reading of the manuscript and helpful discussions.

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Subjects:

Research Funding:

A.Y.S. is supported by NIH-NINDS (NS085402, NS096997, NS097775), NIH-NIGMS (P20GM109040), National Science Foundation (1539034), the Dana Foundation, the American Heart Association (14GRNT20480366), Alzheimer’s Association, and the Charleston Conference on Alzheimer’s Disease.

H.I.H. is supported by NIH-NHLBI (U01HL117721, R01HL138423) and an Emory University Pilot/HeRO Award.

D.A.H. is supported by awards from NIH (T32 GM08716), NIH-NCATS (UL1 TR001450, TL1 TR001451), and NIH-NINDS (F30NS096868).

S.J.v.V. is supported by a Rubicon grant from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (019.153LW.014).

Keywords:

  • Science & Technology
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Peripheral Vascular Disease
  • Neurosciences & Neurology
  • Cardiovascular System & Cardiology
  • arteriole
  • autopsy
  • brain
  • cognitive dysfunction
  • vascular dementia
  • BETA-AMYLOID DEPOSITION
  • SMALL-VESSEL DISEASE
  • MOUSE MODEL
  • TRANSGENIC MICE
  • ALZHEIMERS-DISEASE
  • VASCULAR DEMENTIA
  • MULTIPLE MICROINFARCTS
  • COGNITIVE DEFICITS
  • SPONTANEOUS STROKE
  • HYPERTENSIVE-RATS

Rodent Models of Cerebral Microinfarct and Microhemorrhage

Tools:

Journal Title:

Stroke

Volume:

Volume 49, Number 3

Publisher:

, Pages 803-810

Type of Work:

Article | Post-print: After Peer Review

Abstract:

Microinfarcts are prevalent but tiny ischemic lesions that may contribute to vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID)(Fig. 1A and B).1 They are defined as areas of tissue infarction, often with gliosis and/or cavitation, visible only by examination of the autopsied brain at a microscopic level.2, 3 Numerous autopsy studies have now shown that a greater microinfarct burden is correlated with increased likelihood of cognitive impairment.2, 3 Cerebral microinfarcts are observed post-mortem in the brains of approximately 43% of patients with Alzheimer’s disease, 62% of patients with vascular dementia, and 24% of non-demented elderly subjects.4. However, reported microinfarct numbers are a significant underestimation of total burden, as only a small portion of the brain is examined at routine autopsy.1 Indeed, they can number in the hundreds to thousands within a single brain. Microinfarcts can arise from a variety of etiologies, including cerebral small vessel disease, large vessel disease, cerebral hypoperfusion, and cardiac disease, but their role in the pathogenesis of VCID remains poorly understood.

Copyright information:

© 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

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