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Author Notes:

Corresponding author. Uro-Oncology Research, Department of Medicine and Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 8750 Beverly Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA, USA. E-mail address: leland.chung@cshs.org (L.W.K. Chung).

Study design: Gina Chia-Yi Chu, Leland W. K. Chung, Murali Gururajan, Chia-Ling Hsieh, Sajni Josson, Srinivas Nandana, Shian-Ying Sung, Ruoxiang Wang, Jason Boyang Wu, Haiyen E. Zhau.

Data acquisition: All authors listed above.

Data analysis: All authors listed above.

Drafting of manuscript: All authors listed above.

Critical revision of the manuscript: Leland W. K. Chung.

All contributing authors are senior/corresponding and the authors' list is arranged alphabetically.

Drs. Shian-Ying Sung and Chia-Ling Hsieh credited their work to Emory University School of Medicine, for the original concepts of tumor-stromal interaction and co-evolution, and co-targeting tumor-stroma by employing gene therapy and the critical supporting data of these concepts were obtained there.

The authors thank Gary Mawyer for the editorial assistance.

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


Research Funding:

The authors thank the financial support from NIH/National Cancer Institute grants (2P01CA098912)


  • Cancer-stromal interaction
  • Castration resistance
  • Metastasis
  • Prostate cancer
  • Targeted therapy

Regulatory signaling network in the tumor microenvironment of prostate cancer bone and visceral organ metastases and the development of novel therapeutics.


Journal Title:

Asian Journal of Urology


Volume 6, Number 1


, Pages 65-81

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


This article describes cell signaling network of metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) to bone and visceral organs in the context of tumor microenvironment and for the development of novel therapeutics. The article focuses on our recent progress in the understanding of: 1) The plasticity and dynamics of tumor-stroma interaction; 2) The significance of epigenetic reprogramming in conferring cancer growth, invasion and metastasis; 3) New insights on altered junctional communication affecting PCa bone and brain metastases; 4) Novel strategies to overcome therapeutic resistance to hormonal antagonists and chemotherapy; 5) Genetic-based therapy to co-target tumor and bone stroma; 6) PCa-bone-immune cell interaction and TBX2-WNTprotein signaling in bone metastasis; 7) The roles of monoamine oxidase and reactive oxygen species in PCa growth and bone metastasis; and 8) Characterization of imprinting cluster of microRNA, in tumor-stroma interaction. This article provides new approaches and insights of PCa metastases with emphasis on basic science and potential for clinical translation. This article referenced the details of the various approaches and discoveries described herein in peer-reviewed publications. We dedicate this article in our fond memory of Dr. Donald S. Coffey who taught us the spirit of sharing and the importance of focusing basic science discoveries toward translational medicine.

Copyright information:

ª 2019 Editorial Office of Asian Journal of Urology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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