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Author Notes:

Correspondence: Jacqueline A. Palmer jacqueline.a.palmer@emory.edu

JP: data collection, data processing/analysis, statistical analysis, original manuscript drafting, manuscript editing.

AH and WG: data collection, data processing, manuscript revision.

SW: project conception, research design, manuscript revision.

MB: project conception, research design, data collection, manuscript revision.

We would like to acknowledge Aaron Knott, Patrick O’Shea, Eric Oetter, and Kendall Wilde for their assistance with data collection and participants’ recruitment.

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Subjects:

Research Funding:

This work was supported in part by the American Heart Association (AHA00035638) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH K12HD055931 and U10NS086607-06).

Keywords:

  • Science & Technology
  • Social Sciences
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Neurosciences
  • Psychology
  • Neurosciences & Neurology
  • transcranial magnetic stimulation
  • paired associative stimulation
  • motor learning
  • cortical excitability
  • plasticity
  • motor cortex
  • LONG-TERM POTENTIATION
  • INTERINDIVIDUAL VARIABILITY
  • INTRACORTICAL INHIBITION
  • DEPENDENT PLASTICITY
  • MAGNETIC STIMULATION
  • CORTICAL PLASTICITY
  • EVOKED POTENTIALS
  • SENSORY INPUT
  • BRAIN
  • INDUCTION

Modulatory Effects of Motor State During Paired Associative Stimulation on Motor Cortex Excitability and Motor Skill Learning

Tools:

Journal Title:

Frontiers in Human Neuroscience

Volume:

Volume 13

Publisher:

, Pages 8-8

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF

Abstract:

Repeated pairing of electrical stimulation of a peripheral nerve with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the primary motor cortex (M1) representation for a target muscle can induce neuroplastic adaptations in the human brain related to motor learning. The extent to which the motor state during this form of paired associative stimulation (PAS) influences the degree and mechanisms of neuroplasticity or motor learning is unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of volitional muscle contraction during PAS on: (1) measures of general corticomotor excitability and intracortical circuit excitability; and (2) motor performance and learning. We assessed measures of corticomotor excitability using TMS and motor skill performance during a serial reaction time task (SRTT) at baseline and at 0, 30, 60 min post-PAS. Participants completed a SRTT retention test 1 week following the first two PAS sessions. Following the PAS intervention where the hand muscle maintained an active muscle contraction (PASACTIVE), there was lower short interval intracortical inhibition compared to PAS during a resting motor state (PASREST) and a sham PAS condition (PASCONTROL). SRTT performance improved within the session regardless of PAS condition. SRTT retention was greater following both PASACTIVE and PASREST after 1 week compared to PASCONTROL. These findings suggest that PAS may enhance motor learning retention and that motor state may be used to target different neural mechanisms of intracortical excitation and inhibition during PAS. This observation may be important to consider for the use of therapeutic noninvasive brain stimulation in neurologic patient populations.

Copyright information:

© 2019 Palmer, Halter, Gray, Wolf and Borich.

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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