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Author Notes:

Corresponding author at: Neuroscience, Emory University, 1760 Haygood Dr NE W200, Atlanta, GA 30322, United States. E-mail address: shella.keilholz@bme.gatech.edu (S. Keilholz).

The authors would like to thank Helen Mayberg, Eric Schumacher, Michael Borich, Paul Garcia, and David Weinshenker for their comments regarding the work presented here.

Declarations of interest: None.


Research Funding:

Funding was provided by NSF BCS INSPIRE 1533260, NIHR01MH111416, and NIHR01NS078095.

The authors would like to acknowledge the individuals involved in collection of all data and the various funding sources that supported the NeuroImage Sample, New York University dataset, and Peking University dataset, which are included but not limited to NIMH (R01MH083246), Autism Speaks, The Stavros Niarchos Foundation, Leon Levy Foundation, an endowment provided by Phyllis Green and Randolph Cōwen, Commonwealth Sciences Foundation, Ministry of Health, China (200802073), National Foundation, Ministry of Science and Technology, China (2007BAI17B03), National Natural Sciences Foundation, China (30970802), Funds for International Cooperation of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81020108022), National Natural Science Foundation of China (8100059), and the Open Research Fund of the State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning.


  • Science & Technology
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Neuroimaging
  • Neurosciences & Neurology
  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
  • Resting-state fMRI
  • Functional connectivity
  • Default mode network
  • Task positive network
  • Quasi-periodic patterns
  • Dynamic functional connectivity
  • ADHD

Quasi-periodic patterns of brain activity in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder


Journal Title:

NeuroImage: Clinical


Volume 21


, Pages 101653-101653

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder have disrupted functional connectivity in the default mode and task positive networks. Traditional fMRI analysis techniques that focus on ‘static’ changes in functional connectivity have been successful in identifying differences between healthy controls and individuals with ADHD. However, such analyses are unable to explain the mechanisms behind the functional connectivity differences observed. Here, we study dynamic changes in functional connectivity in individuals with ADHD through investigation of quasi-periodic patterns (QPPs). QPPs are reliably recurring low-frequency spatiotemporal patterns in the brain linked to infra-slow electrical activity. They have been shown to contribute to functional connectivity observed through static analysis techniques. We find that QPPs contribute to functional connectivity specifically in regions that are disrupted in individuals with ADHD. Individuals with ADHD also show differences in the spatiotemporal pattern observed within the QPPs. This difference results in a weaker contribution of QPPs to functional connectivity in the default mode and task positive networks. We conclude that quasi-periodic patterns provide insight into the mechanisms behind functional connectivity differences seen in individuals with ADHD. This allows for a better understanding of the etiology of the disorder and development of effective treatments.

Copyright information:

© 2019 The Authors

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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