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Author Notes:

Correspondence should be addressed to Zhi-Ren Zhang; zhirenz@yahoo.com

Qiu-Shi Wang and Chen Liang contributed equally to this work.

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.


Research Funding:

This study was supported by the Key Project of the Chinese National Program for Fundamental Research and Development (973 Program 2014CB542401 to Z-RZ), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (91639202 and 81320108002 to Z-RZ and 81600221 to Q-SW), a grant from NIH (R01 DK 100582 to H-PM), and the Natural Science Foundation of Heilongjiang Province (QC2016128 to Q-SW).


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Palmitate Stimulates the Epithelial Sodium Channel by Elevating Intracellular Calcium, Reactive Oxygen Species, and Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Activity


Journal Title:

Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity


Volume 2018


, Pages 7560610-7560610

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Previous studies indicate that the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in the kidney is upregulated in diabetes mellitus. Here, we show that ENaC single-channel activity in distal nephron cells was significantly increased by palmitate, a free fatty acid which is elevated in diabetes mellitus. We also show that palmitate increased intracellular Ca 2+ and that after chelating intracellular Ca 2+ with BAPTA-AM, palmitate failed to affect ENaC activity. Treatment of the cells with 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB, an inhibitor of IP 3 receptors) abolished the elevation of both intracellular Ca 2+ and ENaC activity. Treatment of the cells with apocynin (an NADPH oxidase inhibitor), dithiothreitol/NaHS (reducing agents), or LY294002 (a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor) prevented palmitate-induced ENaC activity, whereas thimerosal (an oxidizing agent) mimicked the effects of palmitate on ENaC activity. However, these treatments did not alter the levels of intracellular Ca 2+ , indicating that elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of PI3K are downstream of the signaling cascade. Since we have shown that ROS stimulate ENaC by activating PI3K, these data together suggest that palmitate first elevates intracellular Ca 2+ , then activates an NADPH oxidase to elevate intracellular ROS and PI3K activity, and finally increases ENaC activity via the activated PI3K.

Copyright information:

© 2018 Qiu-Shi Wang et al.

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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