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Author Notes:

Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to N.F.H. (email: ngantina@stanford.edu)

N.F.H., V.S., V.B.M., N.S., G.P., K.H.N. and O.J.A. wrote the manuscript.

B.L.P., S.M.W., Y.Y., J.Z. and J.C.W. provided scientific input and critically reviewed the manuscript.

This Comment is a product of discussions of the Progenitor Cell Biology Consortium Workshop, held at Stanford Cardiovascular Institute in April 2017.

We acknowledge D. Buxton (National Institutes of Health) and M. Terrin (University of Maryland) for their leadership in organizing the workshop, as well as to other participants of the workshop.

J.C.W. has financial interest in Khoris Biosciences.

All the remaining authors declare no competing interests.


Research Funding:

We also gratefully acknowledge support of the symposium by the National Institutes of Health Progenitor Cell Biology Consortium (HL099997).


  • Cardiology
  • Cardiovascular Tissue
  • Tissue Engineering
  • Pluripotent stem cells
  • roadblocks

Big bottlenecks in cardiovascular tissue engineering.

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Journal Title:

Communications Biology


Volume 1


, Pages 199-199

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Although tissue engineering using human-induced pluripotent stem cells is a promising approach for treatment of cardiovascular diseases, some limiting factors include the survival, electrical integration, maturity, scalability, and immune response of three-dimensional (3D) engineered tissues. Here we discuss these important roadblocks facing the tissue engineering field and suggest potential approaches to overcome these challenges.

Copyright information:

© This is a U.S. government work and not under copyright protection in the U.S.; foreign copyright protection may apply 2018

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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