About this item:

90 Views | 77 Downloads

Author Notes:

Correspondence: Torri D. Metz, MD, MS, Denver Health Medical Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 777 Bannock St, MC 0660, Denver, CO 80204, Torri.Metz@dhha.org, Work: 303-602-9727, Cell: 303-656-5477, Fax: 303-602-9734.

The authors report no conflict of interest.

Subjects:

Research Funding:

Dr. Metz was supported by the National Institute on Child Health and Human Development under Award Number 2K12HD001271-16.

The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.

Keywords:

  • Science & Technology
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Obstetrics & Gynecology
  • adverse pregnancy outcome
  • biological sampling
  • maternal marijuana use
  • tetrahydrocannabinol
  • umbilical cord homogenate
  • CANNABIS USE
  • MASS-SPECTROMETRY
  • BIRTH-WEIGHT
  • FETAL-GROWTH
  • CHROMATOGRAPHY
  • METAANALYSIS
  • ASSOCIATION
  • STILLBIRTH
  • RESISTANCE
  • EXPOSURE

Maternal marijuana use, adverse pregnancy outcomes, and neonatal morbidity

Tools:

Journal Title:

American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

Volume:

Volume 217, Number 4

Publisher:

, Pages 478.e1-478.e8

Type of Work:

Article | Post-print: After Peer Review

Abstract:

Background The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network previously demonstrated an association between stillbirth and maternal marijuana use as defined by the presence of 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid in the umbilical cord homogenate. However, the relationship between marijuana use and perinatal complications in live births is uncertain. Objective Our aim was to examine if maternal marijuana use is associated with increased odds of adverse pregnancy outcomes and neonatal morbidity among live-born controls in the Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network cohort. Study Design We conducted a secondary analysis of singleton, live-born controls in the Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network data set. Marijuana use was measured by self-report and/or the presence of 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid in umbilical cord homogenate. Tobacco use was measured by self-report and/or presence of any cotinine in maternal serum. Adverse pregnancy outcome was a composite of small for gestational age, spontaneous preterm birth resulting from preterm labor with or without intact membranes, and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Neonatal morbidity included neonatal intensive care unit admission and composite neonatal morbidity (pulmonary morbidity, necrotizing enterocolitis, seizures, retinopathy of prematurity, infection morbidity, anemia requiring blood transfusion, neonatal surgery, hyperbilirubinemia, neurological morbidity, or death prior to hospital discharge). Effect of maternal marijuana use on the probability of an adverse outcome was estimated using weighted methodology to account for oversampling in the original study. 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid cord homogenate analysis was performed in the subset of women for whom biospecimens were available. Comparisons using logistic modeling, χ2, and t tests were weighted to account for oversampling of preterm births and non-Hispanic blacks. Results are reported as weighted percent and unweighted frequencies. Results Maternal marijuana use was identified in 2.7% (unweighted frequency 48/1610) of live births. Use was self-reported by 1.6% (34/1610) and detected by 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid in cord homogenate for 1.9% (17/897), n = 3 overlapping. Rate of tobacco use was 12.9% (217/1610), with 10.7% (167/1607) by self-report and 9.5% (141/1313) by serum cotinine. The composite adverse pregnancy outcome was not significantly increased in women with marijuana use compared to nonusers (31.2% vs 21.2%; P =.14). After adjustment for tobacco, clinical, and socioeconomic factors, marijuana use was not associated with the composite adverse pregnancy outcome (adjusted odds ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 0.56–2.96). Similarly, among women with umbilical cord homogenate and serum cotinine data (n = 765), marijuana use was not associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes (adjusted odds ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.18–5.66). Neonatal intensive care unit admission rates were not statistically different between groups (16.9% users vs 9.5% nonusers, P =.12). Composite neonatal morbidity or death was more frequent among neonates of mothers with marijuana use compared to nonusers (14.1% vs 4.5%; P =.002). In univariate comparisons, the components of the composite outcome that were more frequent in neonates of marijuana users were infection morbidity (9.8% vs 2.4%; P <.001) and neurologic morbidity (1.4% vs 0.3%; P =.002). After adjustment for tobacco, race, and other illicit drug use, marijuana use was still associated with composite neonatal morbidity or death (adjusted odds ratio, 3.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.40–6.91). Conclusion Maternal marijuana use was not associated with a composite of small for gestational age, spontaneous preterm birth, or hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. However, it was associated with an increased risk of neonatal morbidity.

Copyright information:

© 2017 Elsevier Inc.

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Creative Commons License

Export to EndNote