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Author Notes:

Correspondence: Weiping Cao; wcao@cdc.govImmunology; Pathogenesis Branch, Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA

Acknowledgements: We thank NIH Tetramer Core Facility at Emory University for providing reagents for this study.

Disclosure: No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.

The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or the funding agencies.


Research Funding:

This work was supported by the Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and by the Public Health Service grant [AI059374] from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.


  • Science & Technology
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Pharmacology & Pharmacy
  • Cationic polymers
  • H5N1 vaccine
  • adaptive immunity
  • protective immunity
  • mouse model
  • influenza
  • MICE

Nasal delivery of H5N1 avian influenza vaccine formulated with GenJet (TM) or in vivo-jetPEI (R) induces enhanced serological, cellular and protective immune responses


Journal Title:

Drug Delivery


Volume 25, Number 1


, Pages 773-779

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Avian influenza virus infection is a serious public health threat and preventive vaccination is the most cost-effective public health intervention strategy. Unfortunately, currently available unadjuvanted avian influenza vaccines are poorly immunogenic and alternative vaccine formulations and delivery strategies are in urgent need to reduce the high risk of avian influenza pandemics. Cationic polymers have been widely used as vectors for gene delivery in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we formulated H5N1 influenza vaccines with GenJet™ or in vivo-jetPEI®, and showed that these formulations significantly enhanced the immunogenicity of H5N1 vaccines and conferred protective immunity in a mouse model. Detailed analyses of adaptive immune responses revealed that both formulations induced mixed TH1/TH2 antigen-specific CD4 T-cell responses, antigen-specific cytotoxic CD8 T-cell and memory B-cell responses. Our findings suggest that cationic polymers merit future development as potential adjuvants for mucosal delivery of poorly immunogenic vaccines.

Copyright information:

© 2018 The Author(s).

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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