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Author Notes:

Corresponding author: Shella Keilholz, 1760 Haygood Dr, HSRB W230, Atlanta, GA 30322, 404-727-2433, shella.keilholz@bme.gatech.edu

The authors would like to thank Anzar Abbas, Hyun Koo Chung, and Amrit Kashyap for helpful discussions.

Subjects:

Research Funding:

The research behind this review paper was supported by NIH R01 NS078095, R21 NS072810, R21NS057718, NSF BCS INSPIRE 1533260, Air Force Center of Excellence on Bio-nano-enabled Inorganic/Organic Nanostructures and Improved Cognition (BIONIC), and the Center for Systems Imaging at Emory.

Keywords:

  • Science & Technology
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Neurosciences
  • Neuroimaging
  • Radiology, Nuclear Medicine & Medical Imaging
  • Neurosciences & Neurology
  • fMRI
  • rs-fMRI
  • Functional connectivity
  • Functional MRI
  • Noise
  • Non-neuronal contributions
  • Animal studies
  • CEREBRAL-BLOOD-FLOW
  • RESTING-STATE FMRI
  • DEFAULT MODE NETWORK
  • FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIVITY MRI
  • LOW-FREQUENCY OSCILLATIONS
  • ANTI-CORRELATED NETWORKS
  • BRAIN NETWORKS
  • MOUSE-BRAIN
  • RAT-BRAIN
  • SOMATOSENSORY STIMULATION

Noise and non-neuronal contributions to the BOLD signal: applications to and insights from animal studies

Tools:

Journal Title:

NeuroImage

Volume:

Volume 154

Publisher:

, Pages 267-281

Type of Work:

Article | Post-print: After Peer Review

Abstract:

The BOLD signal reflects hemodynamic events within the brain, which in turn are driven by metabolic changes and neural activity. However, the link between BOLD changes and neural activity is indirect and can be influenced by a number of non-neuronal processes. Motion and physiological cycles have long been known to affect the BOLD signal and are present in both humans and animal models. Differences in physiological baseline can also contribute to intra- and inter-subject variability. The use of anesthesia, common in animal studies, alters neural activity, vascular tone, and neurovascular coupling. Most intriguing, perhaps, are the contributions from other processes that do not appear to be neural in origin but which may provide information about other aspects of neurophysiology. This review discusses different types of noise and non-neuronal contributors to the BOLD signal, sources of variability for animal studies, and insights to be gained from animal models.

Copyright information:

© 2017 Elsevier Inc.

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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