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Author Notes:

Correspondence: Jenny J. Yang jenny@gsu.edu.

J.Z. conducted most of the experiments and analyzed the results.

J.Z. and M.S. wrote the paper together.

Y.C. contributed to the experiment design.

Y.Z. conducted experiments on NMR and N.E.B. helped with designing and performing BRET experiments and analyzing BRET result.

J.R.H. helped with BRET experiment design and manuscript editing.

J.Y. supervised the research and wrote the manuscript.

We thank Dr Richard Veenstra (SUNY Upstate Medical University) for sharing the mouse Cx45 plasmid with us.

We thank Dr Camillo Peracchia for his helpful suggestions and Dr Michael Kirberger for editing.

The Authors declare that there are no competing interests associated with the manuscript.

Subjects:

Research Funding:

This work was supported, in part, by NIH grants [EY-05684] to Charles F. Louis (C.F.L.) and Jenny J. Yang (J.J.Y.), [HL-042220] to Richard D. Veenstra (R.D.V.) and Jenny J. Yang, and [GM-081749] to Jenny J. Yang.

This work was also supported by a Brain and Behavior Fellowship (GSU) to J. Zou, and a Molecular Basis of Disease Fellowship (GSU) to M. Salarian.

Keywords:

  • Science & Technology
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
  • RESONANCE ENERGY-TRANSFER
  • GAP-JUNCTION CHANNELS
  • CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS
  • DEPENDENT SODIUM-CHANNEL
  • 3.5 ANGSTROM RESOLUTION
  • LENS EPITHELIAL-CELLS
  • LIGHT-CHAIN KINASE
  • LIVING CELLS
  • IQ-MOTIF
  • COMMUNICATING JUNCTIONS

Direct visualization of interaction between calmodulin and connexin45

Tools:

Journal Title:

Biochemical Journal

Volume:

Volume 474, Number 24

Publisher:

, Pages 4035-4051

Type of Work:

Article | Post-print: After Peer Review

Abstract:

Calmodulin (CaM) is an intracellular Ca2+ transducer involved in numerous activities in a broad Ca2+ signaling network. Previous studies have suggested that the Ca2+/CaM complex may participate in gap junction regulation via interaction with putative CaMbinding motifs in connexins; however, evidence of direct interactions between CaM and connexins has remained elusive to date due to challenges related to the study of membrane proteins. Here, we report the first direct interaction of CaM with Cx45 (connexin45) of γ-family in living cells under physiological conditions by monitoring bioluminescence resonance energy transfer. The interaction between CaM and Cx45 in cells is strongly dependent on intracellular Ca2+ concentration and can be blocked by the CaM inhibitor, N-(6-Aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide hydrochloride (W7). We further reveal a CaM-binding site at the cytosolic loop (residues 164-186) of Cx45 using a peptide model. The strong binding (Kd ∼ 5 nM) observed between CaM and Cx45 peptide, monitored by fluorescence-labeled CaM, is found to be Ca2+-dependent. Furthermore, high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals that CaM and Cx45 peptide binding leads to global chemical shift changes of 15N-labeled CaM, but does not alter the size of the structure. Observations involving both N-And C-domains of CaM to interact with the Cx45 peptide differ from the embraced interaction with Cx50 from another connexin family. Such interaction further increases Ca2+ sensitivity of CaM, especially at the N-Terminal domain. Results of the present study suggest that both helicity and the interaction mode of the cytosolic loop are likely to contribute to CaM's modulation of connexins.

Copyright information:

© 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society

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