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Author Notes:

Clinton D. Kilts Psychiatry Research Institute, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 W. Markham St, Mail Slot 554, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA. Tel.: + 1 501 526 8163; fax: + 1 501 526 8199. CDKilts@uams.edu

Author Ashley Kennedy participated in data collection, conducted the statistical analyses, and wrote the first draft of the manuscript.

Author Robin Gross screened, assessed and enrolled potential subjects, administered tests, and collected data for the study.

Author Natasha Whitfield conducted the cognitive behavioral therapy for the study.

Author Karen Drexler served as the study medical director and conducted medication reconciliation with potential subjects.

Author Clinton Kilts designed the study, wrote the protocol, and directed the writing of the manuscript.

All authors contributed to and have approved the final manuscript.

The authors also gratefully acknowledge the invaluable assistance and input to the project by the SATP clinical group leaders.

The funding sources had no direct role in the study design, collection, analysis or interpretation of the data, writing the manuscript, or the decision to submit the study description for publication.


Research Funding:

This project was supported by NIH grants R21DA025243 and F31DA025491 from the National Institutes of Drug Abuse (NIDA), and the National Center for Research Resources grants UL RR025008 and TL1 RR025010 from the Atlanta Clinical and Translational Science Institute (ACTSI).

These funding sources had no direct role in the study design, collection, analysis or interpretation of the data, writing the manuscript, or the decision to submit the study description for publication.


  • Social Sciences
  • Science & Technology
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Psychology, Clinical
  • Substance Abuse
  • Psychology
  • D-Cycloserine
  • Addiction
  • Cognitive behavioral therapy
  • Cocaine
  • Clinical trial
  • Memory

A controlled trial of the adjunct use of D-Cycloserine to facilitate cognitive behavioral therapy outcomes in a cocaine-dependent population


Journal Title:

Addictive Behaviors


Volume 37, Number 8


, Pages 900-907

Type of Work:

Article | Post-print: After Peer Review


Cocaine dependence is a chronically relapsing disorder for which its predominant behavioral therapies are associated with only partial efficacy. The goal of this study was to determine if the N-methyl- d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor partial agonist and cognitive enhancer, d-cycloserine (DCS), could boost the cocaine abstinence and treatment retention goals of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). This study employed a placebo-controlled, randomized double-blind trial design of 44 cocaine-dependent men enrolled in a 4-week outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment Program (SATP) at the Atlanta Veteran's Administration Medical Center. Subjects received 50. mg of DCS or placebo prior to four weekly sessions of a condensed version of a manual-based CBT for cocaine dependence. Cocaine abstinence and treatment retention measures represented primary outcome variables. Relative to a 12-step based treatment-as-usual, an under-dosed CBT was associated with significant improvements in drug abstinence and treatment retention at 4-weeks and for maintenance of drug abstinence after four more weeks of follow-up. The robust response to the under-dosed CBT was not enhanced by the adjunct administration of DCS at either the 4- or 8-week endpoints. This controlled clinical trial failed to demonstrate an ability of DCS to boost the relapse prevention or treatment retention goals of CBT.

Copyright information:

© 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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