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Author Notes:

Ajit P. Yoganathan, The Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, 313 Ferst Dr., Atlanta, GA 30332, USA, Tel.: +1 404 894 2849; fax: +1 404 894 4243, Email: ude.hcetag.emb@nahtanagoy.tija.

We acknowledge the contributions to and development of the data acquisition platform provided by members of the Cardiovascular Research Unit in Århus, Denmark.


Research Funding:

This study was supported by a research grant awarded from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA1061718) and by grants from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (HL63954 and HL73021).

Dr. Robert Gorman and Dr. Joseph Gorman were supported by individual Established Investigator Awards from the American Heart Association, Dallas, TX.


  • Science & Technology
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Technology
  • Biophysics
  • Engineering, Biomedical
  • Engineering
  • Mitral valve
  • Ischemic mitral regurgitation
  • Force
  • Strain gage
  • Transducer

In-vivo transducer to measure dynamic mitral annular forces


Journal Title:

Journal of Biomechanics


Volume 45, Number 8


, Pages 1514-1516

Type of Work:

Article | Post-print: After Peer Review


Limited knowledge exists regarding the forces which act on devices implanted to the heart's mitral valve. Developing a transducer to measure the peak force magnitudes, time rates of change, and relationship with left ventricular pressure will aid in device development. A novel force transducer was developed and implanted in the mitral valve annulus of an ovine subject. In the post-cardioplegic heart, septal-lateral and transverse forces were continuously measured for cardiac cycles reaching a peak left ventricular pressure of 90. mmHg. Each force was seen to increase from ventricular diastole and found to peak at mid-systole. The mean change in septal-lateral and transverse forces throughout the cardiac cycle was 4.4±0.2. N and 1.9±0.1. N respectively. During isovolumetric contraction, the septal-lateral and transverse forces were found to increase at peak rate of 143±8. N/s and 34±9. N/s, respectively. Combined, this study provides the first quantitative assessment of septal-lateral and transverse forces within the contractile mitral annulus. The developed transducer was successful in measuring these forces whose methods may be extended to future studies. Upon additional investigation, these data may contribute to the safer development and evaluation of devices aimed to repair or replace mitral valve function.

Copyright information:

© 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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