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Author Notes:

Correspondence: Michaela Müller-Trutwin, mmuller@pasteur.fr

Author contributions: NH, SB, MP, RR, and MM-T wrote the review.

NH designed the figure and the table.

RR and MM-T edited the text.

MM-T composed and oversaw the chapters.

Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

The handling Editor declared a shared affiliation, though no other collaboration, with several of the authors SB, MP.

Subjects:

Research Funding:

NH was recipient of a fellowship from the French Vaccine Research Institute funded by the National Agency of Research (ANR) under reference ANR-10-LABX-77.

The Infectious Disease Models and Innovative Therapies (IDMIT) center in Fontenay-aux-Roses, France, is funded by the French government’s Investissements d’Avenir program for infrastructures (PIA) under grant ANR-11-INBS-0008 and the PIA grant ANR-10-EQPX-02-01.

MM-T received a grant from the French Agency of AIDS Research, ANRS (AO 2017-2), and a donation from the L’OREAL Foundation.

SB is supported by NIH grants U24-AI120134, UM1-AI124436, and R21-AI118542.

RR is supported by National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants RO1 DE026014 and RO1 AI120828.

MP is supported by NIH grants R01AI-110334, R01AI-116379, R33AI-104278, and R33AI116171.

Keywords:

  • Science & Technology
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Immunology
  • HIV
  • SIV
  • natural hosts
  • lymph nodes
  • viral control
  • T cells
  • NK cells
  • inflammation
  • SIMIAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS
  • AFRICAN-GREEN MONKEYS
  • CD4(+) T-CELLS
  • INFECTED SOOTY MANGABEYS
  • PLASMACYTOID DENDRITIC CELLS
  • NONPATHOGENIC SIV INFECTION
  • PERSISTENT LCMV INFECTION
  • NONHUMAN PRIMATE HOSTS
  • I INTERFERON RESPONSES
  • RHESUS MACAQUES

Lymph Node Cellular and viral Dynamics in Natural Hosts and impact for HIV Cure Strategies

Tools:

Journal Title:

Frontiers in Immunology

Volume:

Volume 9

Publisher:

, Pages 780-780

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF

Abstract:

Combined antiretroviral therapies (cARTs) efficiently control HIV replication leading to undetectable viremia and drastic increases in lifespan of people living with HIV. However, cART does not cure HIV infection as virus persists in cell ular and anatomical reservoirs, from which the virus generally rebounds soon after cART cessation. One major anatomical reservoir are lymph node (LN) follicles, where HIV persists through replication in follicular helper T cells and is also trapped by follicular dendritic cells. Natural hosts of SIV, such as African green monkeys and sooty mangabeys, generally do not progress to disease although displaying persistently high viremia. Strikingly, these hosts mount a strong control of viral replication in LN follicles shortly after peak viremia that lasts throughout infection. Herein, we discuss the potential interplay between viral control in LNs and the resolution of inflammation, which is characteristic for natural hosts. We furthermore detail the differences that exist between non-pathogenic SIV infection in natural hosts and pathogenic HIV/SIV infection in humans and macaques regarding virus target cells and replication dynamics in LNs. Several mechanisms have been proposed to be implicated in the strong control of viral replication in natural host's LNs, such as NK cell-mediated control, that will be reviewed here, together with lessons and limitations of in vivo cell depletion studies that have been performed in natural hosts. Finally, we discuss the impact that these insights on viral dynamics and host responses in LNs of natural hosts have for the development of strategies toward HIV cure.

Copyright information:

© 2018 Huot, Bosinger, Paiardini, Reeves and Müller-Trutwin.

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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